Era of Good Feelings
The Monroe years were believed to be marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, and goodwill, chiefly as a result of the Federalists fading into oblivion and the Monroe Party (The Republicans) dominating politics.
loyalty to one specific section or region
fought in the Revolutionary War as a young man, served in high-level diplomatic roles, (such as Madison's secretary to state). In the election of 1816, he defeated his Federalist opponent, Rufus King, by an overwhelming margin, and won again in the election of 1820. Because the Federalist had basically completely faded away, he had no political opposition and supported the growing nationalism of the American people. His presidency (8 years) is marked by the acquisition of Florida, the Missouri Compromise, and the Monroe Doctrine.
Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society, from paintings to schoolbooks. Many famous artists painted Revolutionary War heroes, and a biography was written on George Washington. The expanding public schools embraced Noah Webster's blue-backed speller, which promoted patriotism. The basic ideas of patriotism and nationalism would dominate most of the 19th century.
A political movement to support the growth of the nation's economy. They wanted to subsidize internal improvements (building of roads and canals), and also to protect budding U.S. industries from European competition.
Tariff of 1816
Congress raised the tariff rates on certain goods for the purpose of protecting U.S. manufacturers from ruin.
American manufacturers were afraid that British goods would be dumped on American markets and take away much of their business. Congress passed this tariff in 1816, and it was the first of many to come.
This leader in the House of Representatives (from Kentucky) proposed a comprehensive method for advancing the nations economic growth
(1) protective tariffs, (2) a national bank, and (3) internal improvements. (proposed by Henry Clay)
Second Bank of the United States
A national bank established due to Clay's American System
Panic of 1819
This economic disaster was largely the fault of the Second Bank of the U.S., which had tightened credit in a belated effort to control inflation. Many state banks closed, the value of money fell, and there were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt. As a result of this, nationalistic beliefs were shaken, and in the West (where the disaster hit the hardest) many voters political outlooks were changed.
appointed to the Supreme Court in 1800 by Federalist President John Adams, lead the court as its chief justice. Had major influence, and his decisions usually favored the central government and the rights of property (against state's rights). Established the principle of judicial review. Below are a list of his prominent cases and their rulings
Fletcher v. Peck
Ruled that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract. First time the SC declared a state law to be unconstitutional. (1810)
McCulloch v. Maryland
Ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create a bank. Furthermore, a state could NOT tax a federal institution because "the power to tax is the power to destroy," and federal laws are supreme over state laws. (1819)
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Law of New Hampshire that would change Dartmouth College from a privately chartered college into a public institution. Marshall struck this law down as unconstitutional, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state. (1819)
Gibbons v. Ogden
Ruling that New York granting a monopoly to a steamboat company (even though that action conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress) was unconstitutional, Marshall established the federal government's broad control of interstate commerce. (1821)
powers that are not directly stated in the Constitution
James Tallmadge from New York proposed this amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission: (1) prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri, and (2) requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25. Amendment was defeated in the Senate because it enraged southerners.
Henry Clay presented a compromise to calm down the slavery debates in Congress:
1. Missouri was to be admitted as a slave state.
2. Maine was to be admitted as a free state.
3. In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36o 30', slavery was prohibited.
During Madison's presidency, when problems with the Barbary pirates again developed, a fleet under this man was sent in 1815 to force the rulers of North Africa to allow American shipping the free use of the Mediterranean.
(1817)- Strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes. In time the agreement was extended to place limits on border fortifications as well.
Treaty of 1818
Improved relations between the US and Britain continued in a treaty that provided for (1) shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland; (2) joint occupation of the Oregon territory for ten years; and (3) the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel, thus establishing the western US-Canada boundary line.
military general who stopped raiders in South American colonies in 1817 and in 1818 led a force of militia into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged two Seminole chiefs. Capturing Pensacola, Jackson drove out the Spanish governor, and even hanged two British traders accused of aiding the Seminoles. He was a very overzealous military leader.
Florida Purchase Treaty
(1819)- Spain turned over the rest of western Florida along with all of the east and its own claims in the Oregon Territory to the US. In exchange, the US agreed to assume $5 million in claims against Spain and give up any U.S. territorial claims to the Spanish province of Texas.
basically said that the American continents are not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. It also declared that the US was opposed to attempts by a European power to interfere in the affairs of any republic in the Western Hemisphere. (1823)
built in the 1790's in Pennsylvania, connected Philadelphia with the rich farmlands around Lancaster. Its success stimulated the construction of other privately built and relatively short toll roads that, by the mid 1820's, connected most of nation's major cities.
National (Cumberland) Road
a paved highway and major route to the west extending more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois. It was begun in 1811 and completed in the 1850's, using both federal and state money, with the different states receiving ownership of segments of the highway.
the completion of this in New York State in 1825 was an event of major importance in linking the economies of western farms and eastern cities.
developed the steamboat called the Clermont that successfully navigated the Hudson River.
began building these in the late 1820's. The first railroads were very dangerous, but by the late 1830's they were competing directly with canals as an alternative method for carrying passengers and freight. Swiftly changed small western towns such as Cleveland and Cincinnati into booming commercial centers of the expanding national economy.
he invented the cotton gin in 1793, and also devised a system for making rifles out of interchangeable parts during the War of 1812. Interchangeable parts became the basis for mass production methods in the new northern factories.
emigrated from Britain, took with him the British secrets for building cotton spinning machines, and he put this knowledge to work by helping establish the first US factory in 1791.
Early in the next century, the embargo and the War of 1812 stimulated domestic manufacturing, and the tariffs enacted by Republican congresses allowed the new factories to prosper. As this system expanded, it encouraged the growth of financial businesses such as banking and insurance.
this recruited young farm women and housed them in company dormitories so they could work on the textile mills. This system was widely imitated in the 1830's. (Lowell, Massachusetts)
developing industries in a country or region on a wide scale
specializing in some sort of manufacturing; textile, etc.
organized in major cities as early as the 1790's and increased in number as the factory system took hold. Wanted to reduce the workday to ten hours.
specialization on farms, the growth of cities, industrialization, and the development of modern capitalism all combined to bring about a revolution in the marketplace. The farmers fed the workers in the cities, who in turn provided for the farm families with an array of mass-produced goods. The standard of living increased for most Americans, but a fast-changing economy also presented problems and challenges.