A & P Final Exam, Part 2

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veins

What are the smallest type of blood vessels?

simple squamous epithelium

What does the endothelium consist of?

Diffusion and bulk flow

What are the 2 main methods of capillary exchange?

Capillaries

Whose function is it to exchange nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue?

contraction of the heart, skeletal muscle pump, & respiratory pump

What is venous return is due to?

Capillaries

What are blood vessels that are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells and a basement membrane?

Venules

What are small veins, collect blood from capillaries, drain into veins, and are similar in structure to arterioles?

veins

Which of the following blood vessels are referred to as blood reservoirs?
A) arteries.
B) veins.
C) capillaries.

artery

Where is blood pressure the highest?

Blood viscosity, blood vessel length, blood vessel radius

What is resistance related to in blood flow?

Baroreceptor reflexes, chemoreceptor reflexes, carotid bodies

Name 3 things involved with the regulation of blood pressure.

It is released by cells of the heart & it lowers blood pressure

Where does atrial natriuretic peptide come from and what does it do?

shock

What do the following symptoms describe?
-increased levels of aldosterone
-rapid, resting heart rate
-cool, pale skin
-sweating

1) increased cardiac rate
2) increased peripheral resistance
3) increased blood volume
4) increased water retention

Name four things that increase blood pressure.

It will increase

As blood viscosity increases, what is the result on peripheral resistance?

Medulla oblongata

Where is the cardiovascular center located in the body?

An increase in blood pressure

What does sympathetic stimulation results in?

arota & internal carotid arteries

Where are baroreceptors located?

chemoreceptors

What are neurons that monitor carbon dioxide levels in the blood and are located in the carotid and aortic
bodies?

A) ADH
B) epinephrine
C) norepinephrine
D) renin

Which hormones influences blood pressure?

ANP

All of the following hormones cause an increase in blood pressure EXCEPT
A) epinephrine.
B) norepinephrine.
C) renin.
D) ANP.
E) ADH.

A long, small diameter blood vessel

Which blood vessels would have the greatest resistance to blood flow?

The pressure difference between the abdominal and thoracic cavity

What is the movement of blood from the abdominal veins into the thoracic veins is mostly due to?

Femoral artery

All of the following blood vessels are commonly used to feel the pulse EXCEPT
A) radial artery.
B) brachial artery.
C) popliteal artery.
D) femoral artery.
E) common carotid artery.

Heartbeat

What is the pulse a direct reflection of?

diastolic blood pressure

What provides information about the resistance of blood vessels?

pulmonary veins

What blood vessel(s) contain blood with the highest oxygen contents?

aorta

Where does all systemic blood vessels branch from?

Systemic circulation

What is the circulatory route which bring blood to the tissues and back to the heart?

cerebral circulation

What is the circulatory route which bring blood to the tissues and back to the heart?

hepatic circulation

What carries the blood rich in substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract?

-reduced cardiac output
-increased systolic blood pressure
-decreased maximum heart rate

Which changes in the cardiovascular system are related to the aging process?

respiratory & digestive systems

The fetal circulation differs from the adult circulation because of two organ systems that are non-functional. These organ systems are the what?

Internal iliac

Which arteries does NOT directly branch from the abdominal aorta?

radial

The direct continuation of the brachial artery is the ________ artery.

coronary sinus

What is the main vein draining blood from the heart tissue?

subclavian veins

What does the external jugular veins empty into?

angiogenesis

What is the formation of new blood vessels referred to?

veins

Where is blood flow the slowest?

B) arteries are larger in diameter than veins- NOT TRUE

Which of the following is NOT true:
A) arteries are stronger than veins.
B) arteries are larger in diameter than veins.
C) veins have valves, most arteries do not.
D) arteries have higher blood pressure than veins.

constriction of the precapillary sphincter of the arterioles

What controls blood flow through a particular tissue area?

changes in local muscle tissue and thoracic pressure

How is blood mainly moved through the veins?

right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk

Give the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the superior and inferior vena cavae to the lungs.

arteriole end of the capillaries

Where do gases and nutrients leave the blood?

the pulmonary circuit

What is blood flow from the heart to the lungs called?

Atherosclerosis

What is it when the arteries are "hardened" by deposits within the wall?

c) unstable plaque has a low lipid content

Which of the following is not true concerning atherosclerosis?
A) stable plaque has a low lipid content
B) stable plaque doesn't grow much
C) unstable plaque has a low lipid content
D) unstable plaque is more likely to rupture than stable plaque
E) unstable plaque often contains a large number of macrophages

E) all are less common in the elderly

Which of the following is more common in the elderly?
A) CAD
B) CHF
C) atherosclerosis
D) decreased blood flow to the brain
E) all are less common in the elderly

hypertension

What is chronically high blood pressure called?

A) lower your levels of potassium, calcium & magnesium

Which of the following will not help prevent hypertension or lower blood pressure?
A) lower your levels of potassium, calcium and magnesium
B) don't smoke
C) reduce intake of sodium
D) exercise
E) reduce or manage stress

aneurysm

What is a thin, weakened section of an artery or vein that bulges out is called?

True

True or False: Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction

False

True or False: All veins carry blood low in oxygen.

True

True or False: Leaky valves cause varicose veins.

True

True or False: Blood flow refers to the amount of blood that passes through a blood vessel in a given period of time.

False

True or False:Blood always flows from regions of lower blood concentration to regions of higher blood
concentration.

False

True or False: Epinephrine has no effect on blood pressure.

True

True or False: Vascular resistance refers to the resistance to blood flow in the peripheral circulation.

False

True or False: Blood volume only occasionally changes blood pressure.

False

True or False: The vasomotor center is located in the hypothalamus.

True

True or False: Parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve causes a decrease in heart rate.

True

True or False: Exercise can cause an increase in blood pressure.

False

True or False: Muscle tissue is not dependent on autoregulation of blood flow.

True

True or False: Velocity of blood flow depends on the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel.

True

True or False: Skeletal muscle contractions help to return venous blood.

False

True or False: Bradycardia indicates a rapid heart rate.

True

True or False: Arteries and veins have several layers including two layers of connective tissue, a layer of smooth muscle and a smooth endothelium lining for efficient blood flow and to prevent clotting. The muscle lining is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins.

True

True or False: There isn't enough blood to go around to all the tissues so the diameter of the arteries and arterioles as well as the constriction of the precapillary sphincters helps determine where blood should go.

False

True or False: Heart rate is regulated by the cardiac center in the hypothalamus and chemoreceptors that detect oxygen levels in the blood.

True

True or False: The major factor that moves blood through the body is pressure differences in the blood vessels between when it leaves the heart and as it returns.

True

True or False: Systolic pressure is the higher number because it is the pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting. Diastolic pressure is lower but it is a constant pressure, because the ventricles are relaxed.

False

True or False: Recently, researchers have discovered that it is impossible to reverse the plaque damage of atherosclerosis.

True

True or False: Regular exercise and stress management can help decrease the plaque buildup associated with atherosclerosis.

True

True or False: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart disease and death in older Americans.

True

True or False: Under the new guidelines, the prehypertension classification now contains individuals that would previously have been considered normal. This means the systolic and diastolic readings for this category are lower than in the past.

True

True or False: Orthostatic hypotension is a large decrease in blood pressure caused by a person standing up.

Capillaries

Arterioles within a tissue or organ branch into countless microscopic vessels called ____.

Filtration

The movement of water and solutes out of capillaries into the interstitial fluid is called _____.

Reabsorption

The movement of water and solutes from the interstitial fluid into the capillaries is called _____.

vasodilation

An increase in the size of a blood vessel lumen is referred to as ____.

pericapillary sphincter

The blood flow in capillaries is regulated by smooth muscle fibers called the ____.

aortic

Chemoreceptors that are sensitive to carbon dioxide levels are found in the carotid and ____ bodies.

varicose

Veins that lose their elasticity and become stretched and flabby are called ______ veins.

Filtration

When hydrostatic pressure in capillaries is higher than osmotic pressure, ____ occurs.

decreases

As blood flows from the heart to arteries to arterioles to capillaries, its velocity ____.

pulse

The alternate expansion and recoiling of an artery with each contraction of the left ventricle is called ____.

sphygmomanometer

The instrument used to measure blood pressure is called ____.

sympathetic

Sweating during shock is due to ____ stimulation.

abdominal aorta

The section between the diaphragm and the common iliac arteries is referred to as the ____.

pulmonary trunk

The blood vessel emerging from the right ventricle is the ____.

arteriole

What is a small artery called?

systemic

Blood flow from the left ventricle to the right atrium is the ____ circulation.

common iliac arteries

The abdominal aorta branches into the ____.

coronary sinus

All veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior vena cava or the ____.

systemic

The cerebral circulation is a subdivision of the ____ circulation.

respiratory

The two pumps which help to return the blood to the heart are the skeletal muscle pump and the ____
pump.

renin

The hormone released by cells of the kidneys in response to decreased blood volume or flow is _____.

tachycardia

What refers to a rapid heart beat?

bradycardia

What indicates a slow heart beat?

hypotension

What is low blood pressure?

hypertension

What is high blood pressure?

arteritis

What is an inflammation of an artery?

phlebitis

What is an inflammation of a vein?

thrombophlebitis

What is the inflammation of a vein w/ clot formation?

occlusion

What is the obstruction of a blood vessel lumen?

syncope

What is a temporary cessation of consciousness?

1. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure.
2. An increase in blood volume also increases blood pressure.
3. Peripheral resistance to blood flow influences blood pressure. Arterioles control peripheral resistance - and therefore blood pressure - by changing their diameters.

Describe the factors that effect blood pressure.

1. Pumping action of the heart.
2. Velocity of blood flow.
3. Skeletal muscle contractions.
4. Valves in the veins.
5. Breathing

Name the factors that help venous return to the heart.

-Left ventricle
- ascending aorta
- arch of the aorta
- descending aorta
- thoracic aorta
- abdominal aorta
- organs and tissues
- inferior and superior vena cava
- right atrium.

Describe the systemic circulation.

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