What 3 characteristics define protozoa?
eukaryotic, unicellular, lack a cell wall
Protozoa are critical members of the ______ which are free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains.
Some ________ have 2 nuclei: maronuclei and micronuclei.
Which nucleus controls metabolism?
Which nucleus controls genetic recombination?
Which nucleus controls sexual reproduction?
macro and micronuclei
Which nucleus controls growth?
All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a __________.
Many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _________.
What is a cyst characterized by?
thick capsule and low metabolic rate
Most protozoa are ______otrophic.
Most protozoa reproduce asexually only, by ________ or ________.
binary fission or schizogony
Gametes fuse with one another to form a diploid _________.
Paramecium reproduce sexually via complex process called _________.
Parabasalids (do, do not) have mitochondria.
________ is a parabasalid that has numerous flagella, inhabits the guts of termites, where it assists in the digestion of wood.
_________ is a parabasalid that proliferates and causes severe inflammation that can lead to sterility when the normally acidic pH of the vagina is raised.
What 3 groups are alveolates divided into?
ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates
________ is a ciliate that has apical cilia which create a whirlpool-like current to direct food into its mouth.
_________ is a ciliate that is the only ciliate pathogenic to humans.
________ is a ciliate that phagocytizes other protozoa.
Plasmodium is an apicomplexan that causes __________.
________ is an apicomplexan that causes cryptosporidiosis.
_________ is an apicomplexan that causes toxoplasmosis.
Which group of alveolates are bioluminescent?
Which of the 3 groups of alveolates contain red pigment that cause the phenomenon called red tide?
_______ and ________ are dinoflagellates that produce neurotoxins.
Gymnodium and Gonyaulax
Which dinoflagellate causes memory loss, confusion, headaches, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps and nausea? Such poisoning is called what?
Pfiesteria, (PEAS- possible estuary-associated syndrome)
What are the 3 groups that scientists classify amoebae in?
Cercozo, radiolaria, amoebozoa
Which two groups of amoebae have threadlike pseudopodia?
Cercozoa and Radiolaria
A major taxon of cercozoa is ___________. They have a porous shell composed of calcium carbonate.
Which group of amoebae have ornate shells composed of silica and reinforce their pseudopodia with stiff internal bundles of microtubules?
Which group of amoebae are distinguished from the other 2 by having lobe-shaped pseudopodia and no shells?
_________ and _________ can cause diseases of the eyes or brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them.
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba are types of amoebae that belong to which group?
________ are in the group amoebozoa and always live inside animals where they produce potentially fatal amebic dysentery.
What are the two types of slime molds?
Plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds
What are 2 main ways that slime molds differ from fungi?
they lack cell walls and they are phagocytic rather than absorptive in their nutrition
Which type of slime mold exists as streaming, coenocytic, colorful filaments of cytoplasm that creep as amoebae through forest litter, feeding by phagocytizing organic debris and bacteria?
plasmodial (acellular) slime molds
Which type of slime mold exists as individual hploid myxamoebae that phagocytize bacteria, yeasts, dung, and decaying vegetation?
cellular slime molds
Which type of slime mold produces spores as a result of meiosis?
Plasmodial slime molds
Which type of slime mold produces spores but they are not enclosed in a common wall and they are not the result of meiosis?
cellular slime molds
The Euglenozoa include __________ and ___________.
Euglenids and kinetoplastids
Euglenozoa (do, do not) have mitochondria.
Euglenids are ________trophic.
Euglenids store food as a unique polysaccharide caleld _________ instead of starch.
Euglenids move by using their flagella as well as by flowing, contracting, and expanding their cytoplasm. This is called ______________.
Each euglenid has a __________ that plays a role in positive phototaxis by casting a shadow on a photoreceptor at the flagellar base, triggering movement in that direction.
Euglenids reproduce how?
mitosis followed by cytokinesis
Eugelnids form ______ when exposed to harsh conditions.
Kinetoplastids have a single large mitochondrion that contains a unique region of a mitochondrial DNA called a __________.
Diplomonadida (do, do not) have mitochondria.
Diplomonadida have __________ in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial genes in the nuclear chromosomes.
What are the seven groups of protozoa?
Parabasala, Alveolata, Cercozoa, Radiolaria, Amoebozoa, Euglenozoa, and Diplomonadida
Fungi include _______, ________, and ____________.
yeasts, molds, mushrooms
How do fungi differ from protozoa?
they have cell walls
What are the cell walls of fungi made up of?
How do fungi differ from plants?
They lack chlorophyll and do not perform photosynthesis
Fungi are ______trophic.
Mycology is the study of ________.
The vegetative (nonreproductive) body of a fungus is called its ________.
thalli of __________ are large
thalli of ________ are small.
Thalli of ________ are composed of filaments called hyphae.
Hyphae are either ________ or ________.
septate or aseptate
________ hyphae are multinucleate.
Fungi that produce 2 types of thalli are said to be ________.
What are 2 examples of dimorphic fungi?
Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioids immitis
hyphae intertwined to form a tangled mass is called what?
The genus _________ contains the largest known organisms on Earth.
Most fungi are _______ —they absorb nutrients from the remnants of dead organisms
Fungi that derive their nutrients from living plants and animals usually have modified hyphae called __________ which penetrate the tissue of the host to withdraw nutrients.
In sexual spore formation of fungi, Haploid (n) cells from a + thallus and a - thallus fuse to form ________.
What are the four major subgroups of fungi?
zygomycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota, and deuteromycetes
How do organisms in zygomycota reproduce?
asexually via sporangiospores
________ is a division of Zygomycota and the organisms within it are obligatory intracellular parasites that spread from host to host as small, resistant spores.
Ascomycota is characterized by the formation of haploid __________ within sacs called _______.
How do ascomycota organisms reproduce?
Most of the fungi that spoil food are __________.
Mushrooms and other fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes are called _______.
Cryptococcus neoformans comes from the division ________ of fungi and is the leading cause of ____________.
Basidiomycota, fungal meningitis
Which division of fungi has sexual stages that are unknown?
Partnerships between fungi and photosynthetic microbes—commonly, cyanobacteria, or less frequently, green algae
3 basic shapes of lichens
Fruticose, Crustose, and Foliose