Microbiology Chapter 12

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What 3 characteristics define protozoa?

eukaryotic, unicellular, lack a cell wall

Protozoa are critical members of the ______ which are free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains.

plankton

Some ________ have 2 nuclei: maronuclei and micronuclei.

ciliates

Which nucleus controls metabolism?

macronucleus

Which nucleus controls genetic recombination?

micronucleus

Which nucleus controls sexual reproduction?

macro and micronuclei

Which nucleus controls growth?

macronucleus

All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a __________.

trophozoite

Many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _________.

cyst

What is a cyst characterized by?

thick capsule and low metabolic rate

Most protozoa are ______otrophic.

Chemoheter

Most protozoa reproduce asexually only, by ________ or ________.

binary fission or schizogony

Gametes fuse with one another to form a diploid _________.

zygote

Paramecium reproduce sexually via complex process called _________.

conjugation

Parabasalids (do, do not) have mitochondria.

do not

________ is a parabasalid that has numerous flagella, inhabits the guts of termites, where it assists in the digestion of wood.

Trichonympha

_________ is a parabasalid that proliferates and causes severe inflammation that can lead to sterility when the normally acidic pH of the vagina is raised.

Trichomonas

What 3 groups are alveolates divided into?

ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates

________ is a ciliate that has apical cilia which create a whirlpool-like current to direct food into its mouth.

Vorticella

_________ is a ciliate that is the only ciliate pathogenic to humans.

Balantidium

________ is a ciliate that phagocytizes other protozoa.

Didinum

Plasmodium is an apicomplexan that causes __________.

malaria

________ is an apicomplexan that causes cryptosporidiosis.

Cryptosporidium

_________ is an apicomplexan that causes toxoplasmosis.

Toxoplasma

Which group of alveolates are bioluminescent?

dinoflagellates

Which of the 3 groups of alveolates contain red pigment that cause the phenomenon called red tide?

dinoflagellates

_______ and ________ are dinoflagellates that produce neurotoxins.

Gymnodium and Gonyaulax

Which dinoflagellate causes memory loss, confusion, headaches, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps and nausea? Such poisoning is called what?

Pfiesteria, (PEAS- possible estuary-associated syndrome)

What are the 3 groups that scientists classify amoebae in?

Cercozo, radiolaria, amoebozoa

Which two groups of amoebae have threadlike pseudopodia?

Cercozoa and Radiolaria

A major taxon of cercozoa is ___________. They have a porous shell composed of calcium carbonate.

foraminifera

Which group of amoebae have ornate shells composed of silica and reinforce their pseudopodia with stiff internal bundles of microtubules?

Radiolaria

Which group of amoebae are distinguished from the other 2 by having lobe-shaped pseudopodia and no shells?

Amoebozoa

_________ and _________ can cause diseases of the eyes or brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them.

Naegleria and Acanthamoeba

Naegleria and Acanthamoeba are types of amoebae that belong to which group?

Amoebozoa

________ are in the group amoebozoa and always live inside animals where they produce potentially fatal amebic dysentery.

Entamoeba

What are the two types of slime molds?

Plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds

What are 2 main ways that slime molds differ from fungi?

they lack cell walls and they are phagocytic rather than absorptive in their nutrition

Which type of slime mold exists as streaming, coenocytic, colorful filaments of cytoplasm that creep as amoebae through forest litter, feeding by phagocytizing organic debris and bacteria?

plasmodial (acellular) slime molds

Which type of slime mold exists as individual hploid myxamoebae that phagocytize bacteria, yeasts, dung, and decaying vegetation?

cellular slime molds

Which type of slime mold produces spores as a result of meiosis?

Plasmodial slime molds

Which type of slime mold produces spores but they are not enclosed in a common wall and they are not the result of meiosis?

cellular slime molds

The Euglenozoa include __________ and ___________.

Euglenids and kinetoplastids

Euglenozoa (do, do not) have mitochondria.

do

Euglenids are ________trophic.

Photoauto

Euglenids store food as a unique polysaccharide caleld _________ instead of starch.

paramylon

Euglenids move by using their flagella as well as by flowing, contracting, and expanding their cytoplasm. This is called ______________.

Euglenoid movement

Each euglenid has a __________ that plays a role in positive phototaxis by casting a shadow on a photoreceptor at the flagellar base, triggering movement in that direction.

red eyespot

Euglenids reproduce how?

mitosis followed by cytokinesis

Eugelnids form ______ when exposed to harsh conditions.

cysts

Kinetoplastids have a single large mitochondrion that contains a unique region of a mitochondrial DNA called a __________.

kinetoplast

Diplomonadida (do, do not) have mitochondria.

do not

Diplomonadida have __________ in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial genes in the nuclear chromosomes.

mitosomes

What are the seven groups of protozoa?

Parabasala, Alveolata, Cercozoa, Radiolaria, Amoebozoa, Euglenozoa, and Diplomonadida

Fungi include _______, ________, and ____________.

yeasts, molds, mushrooms

How do fungi differ from protozoa?

they have cell walls

What are the cell walls of fungi made up of?

chitin

How do fungi differ from plants?

They lack chlorophyll and do not perform photosynthesis

Fungi are ______trophic.

chemohetero

Mycology is the study of ________.

fungi

The vegetative (nonreproductive) body of a fungus is called its ________.

thallus

thalli of __________ are large

molds

thalli of ________ are small.

yeasts

Thalli of ________ are composed of filaments called hyphae.

molds

Hyphae are either ________ or ________.

septate or aseptate

________ hyphae are multinucleate.

Aseptate

Fungi that produce 2 types of thalli are said to be ________.

dimorphic

What are 2 examples of dimorphic fungi?

Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioids immitis

hyphae intertwined to form a tangled mass is called what?

myecelium

The genus _________ contains the largest known organisms on Earth.

Armillaria

Most fungi are _______ —they absorb nutrients from the remnants of dead organisms

saprobes

Fungi that derive their nutrients from living plants and animals usually have modified hyphae called __________ which penetrate the tissue of the host to withdraw nutrients.

haustoria

In sexual spore formation of fungi, Haploid (n) cells from a + thallus and a - thallus fuse to form ________.

dikaryon

What are the four major subgroups of fungi?

zygomycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota, and deuteromycetes

How do organisms in zygomycota reproduce?

asexually via sporangiospores

________ is a division of Zygomycota and the organisms within it are obligatory intracellular parasites that spread from host to host as small, resistant spores.

Microsporidia

Ascomycota is characterized by the formation of haploid __________ within sacs called _______.

ascospores, asci

How do ascomycota organisms reproduce?

conidiospores

Most of the fungi that spoil food are __________.

Ascomycetes

Mushrooms and other fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes are called _______.

basidiocarps

Cryptococcus neoformans comes from the division ________ of fungi and is the leading cause of ____________.

Basidiomycota, fungal meningitis

Which division of fungi has sexual stages that are unknown?

Deuteromycetes

Partnerships between fungi and photosynthetic microbes—commonly, cyanobacteria, or less frequently, green algae

Lichens

3 basic shapes of lichens

Fruticose, Crustose, and Foliose

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