A&P Final Exam, Part 3

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alveolar ducts

Which of the following belongs to the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system?
A) larynx
B) trachea
C) terminal bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts

internal respiration

What is the exchange of gases between blood and cells is called?

alveolar ducts

Which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
A) alveolar ducts
B) terminal bronchioles
C) bronchioles
D) nose
E) pharynx

internal nares

Though what does the internal part of the nose connect to the pharynx?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

What kind of epithelium is the nasal cavity lined with?

oropharynx

Where are the palatine tonsils are found?

nasopharynx

What are the structures with openings to the Eustachian tubes?

nasal septum

What is the nasal cavity is divided into right and left sides by?

thyroid cartilage

What is another name for the Adam's Apple?

epiglottis

What is the structure which closes off the larynx?

The louder the sound

What happens with greater pressure against the vocal cords?

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

What is the correct order of structures in the respiratory passageways?

hyaline cartilage.

What are the C-shaped rings made of that provide support for the wall of the trachea are made out of?

causes bronchiole constriction

What is the effect of histamine?

causes bronchiole constriction

What is the effect of Epinephrine?

friction between the swollen membranes

What is the pain of pleurisy is caused by?

endocardium

Which of the following is NOT a structure associated with the lungs?
A) visceral pleura
B) parietal pleura
C) cardiac notch
D) endocardium
E) hilus

alveoli

Where does the exchange of gases occur?

surfactant-secreting cells

How is surfactant produced?

respiratory bronchioles

What divides into alveolar ducts?

the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure

What scenario must be present for air to enter the lungs during inspiration?

300 million

How many alveoli do the lungs contain?

expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

What is the volume of air that can be expelled after normal exhalation?

tidal volume

What is the volume of air in a normal breath?

TV + IRV + ERV + RV.

What does the total lung capacity equal? Show equation.

diffusion

What is the process where gas exchanges in the lungs?

B.) increased alveolar PO2

28. All of the following decrease the efficiency of external respiration EXCEPT
A) emphysema.
B) increased alveolar PO2.
C) increased altitude.
D) pneumonia.
E) high alveolar PCO2.

as oxyhemoglobin.

How is most oxygen transported in the blood?

Phernic nerve

Through what does nerve impulses travel from the active inspiratory area to the diaphragm?

Almost 80%

Approximately how much CO2 in the blood is carried as bicarbonate?

A) expiration will occur.
B) the lungs will deflate.
C) the inspiratory area is inhibited.
D) impulses are sent along the vagus nerve.

What happens when stretch receptors in the lungs are activated?

H+ and carbon dioxide concentration of blood

The primary chemical stimulus for breathing is the concentration of:

medulla oblongata.

What is the basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by?

dyspnea

What is painful or labored breathing?

emphysema

What is a disorder characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls?

medulla oblongata & pons and the amount of CO2 in the blood

What is respiration rates mainly controlled by?

larynx

Where are the vocal cords located?

Cartilaginous rings

What makes the trachea rigid to keep the airway open, make the bronchi rigid to keep them open, are C shaped in the trachea to allow the esophagus to expand behind it, are not found in the esophagus?

medulla oblongata and pons.

Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center(s) located in the:

epiglottis

What is the flap of cartilage that closes off the larynx and prevents food and water from entering the larynx during swallowing is the:

A) transport of nutrients to tissue

Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
A) transport of nutrients to tissue.
B) ventilation of lungs.
C) Gas exchange between lungs and blood.
D) gas exchange between blood and cells.
E) production of sound.

larynx, oropharynx, esophagus

What organs communicates with the laryngopharynx?

All of them affect the release of oxygen

Which of the following affect the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
A). partial pressure of oxygen
B) temperature
C) acidity and exercise
D) carbon dioxide in the tissue

carbon monoxide

What binds to the heme if the hemoglobin and binds more strongly than oxygen does?

A) emphysema
B) smoker's cough and brochitis
C) lung cancer
D) increased mucous

What are some effects that smoking can cause?

C) less carbon dioxide is produced

Changes in the respirtatory system during exercise include all but which of the following:
A) increase in blood flow to the lungs
B) oxygen diffusion rate increases
C) less carbon dioxide is produced
D) ventilation rate increases
E) ventilation depth increases

23%

The vital capacity can decrease by as much as ___ by the age 70.

False

True or False: The first step of respiration is external respiration.

True

True or False: The nostrils are also called external nares.

False

True or False: The middle portion of the pharynx is the nasopharynx.

True

True or False: The mucous membrane of the larynx forms two pairs of folds.

False

True or False: The trachea is located lateral to the esophagus.

False

True or False: Tertiary bronchi divide into terminal bronchioles.

True

True or False: The narrow top portion of the lung is called the apex.

True

True or False: The right lung is divided into three lobes.

True

True or False: In order for respiration to occur, the volume of the lung needs to be increased.

True

True or False: The nasal cavity is divided into top, middle and bottom portions by nasal conchae and into a right and left side by the nasal septum. The purpose is to circulate air to warm, cleanse, examine and moisten it.

True

True or False: The pressure inside the lungs is the alveolar pressure.

True

True or False: The record of pulmonary volumes and capacities is called a spirogram.

False

True or False: In clinical practice the word ventilation means inspiration only.

False

True or False: The total pressure of a gas mixture is calculated by multiplying the partial pressures.

True

True or False: The transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and body tissues is a function of the blood.

True

True or False: During inspiration the diaphragm contracts and drops which increases the thoracic cavity's size and decreases its pressure. Expiration is the reverse, volume decreases and pressure increases forcing air out.

True

True or False: If alveolar PCO2 is low, CO2 will diffuse from the capillary blood into the alveoli.

False

True or False: The right lung is smaller than the left lung because of the position of the heart.

True

True or False: Parietal pleural membrane lines the thoracic cavity while the visceral pleural membrane covers the lung.

True

True or False: Cigarette smoke is the single most preventable cause of death and disability worldwide

False

True or False: Rhinitis is actually a nose job.

True

True or False: While laryngitis is common among all people, cancer of the larynx is found almost exclusively with those who smoke.

False

True or False: Shallow breathing is called diaphragmatic breathing while deep breathing involves the ribs and so is called costal breathing.

True

True or False: Hypocania caused from voluntary hyperventilation can be dangerous, especially to swimmers, because the oxygen level may from dangerously low and cause fainting.

laryngopharynx

The lowest portion of the pharynx is the _____.

bronchial tree

The branches of the trachea to the bronchi and bronchioles is referred to as the _____.

pleural membrane

The membrane that encloses and protects the lungs is the _____.

respiratory bronchioles

Terminal bronchioles subdivide into microscopic branches called _____.

Heimlich or Abdominal thrust maneuver

The maneuver used to expel an aspirated object is called the _____ maneuver.

alveolar-capillary (respiratory)

The respiratory gases move across the _____ membrane.

bronchoscopy

The visual examination of bronchi through a bronchoscope is called _______.

flattens

When the diaphragm contracts it _____.

eupena

The term applied to normal quiet breathing is _____.

surfactant

The phospholipids produced by the alveolar cells are called _____.

minute volume of respiration

The total volume of air taken in during one minute is called the _____.

residual volume

The air that remains in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled, is the _____.

Functional residual volume

The sum of residual volume plus expiratory reserve volume is the _____.

medullary rhythmicity

The _____ area controls the basic rhythm of respiration.

ventilation (breathing)

The passive process by which air flows into and out of the lungs is called ______.

inflation reflex

The protective mechanism that prevents overinflation of the lungs is called _____.

hypoventilation

A slow rate and depth of respiration is called _____.

apnea

The temporary cessation of breathing is known as _____.

epiglottis

The structure that prevents food from entering the respiratory passages is the _____.

medulla oblongata

The chemosensitive area is located in the _____.

carbaminohemoglobin

Carbon dioxide can be carried by hemoglobin as _____.

proprioceptors

The immediate increase in ventilation at the onset of exercise is a result of the stimulation of _______.

rhinitis

A chronic or acute inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose is called ______.

emphysema

What is it called when alveolar walls lose their elasticity and remain filled with air during expiration?

respiratory distress syndrome

What is also called hyaline membrane disease?

SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)

What kills infants between the ages of 1 week and 12 months, without warning?

pulmonary embolism

What is it when the presence of a blood clot in a pulmonary arterial vessel?

pulmonary edema

What is an abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs?

epistaxis

What is another name for nose bleed?

hemoptysis

What is spitting of blood from the respiratory tract?

asphyxia

What is oxygen starvation?

dyspnea

What is painful breathing?

orthopnea

What is painful breathing in a horizontal position?

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

Name, in correct order, the conducting portion of the respiratory system.

1. They warm, moisten, and filter incoming air.
2. They receive olfactory stimuli.
3. They provide a resonating chamber for speech sounds.

Name the function of the interior structures of the nose.

1. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air in and out of the lungs, inspiration occurs
when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the atmospheric pressure. This is achieved by increasing the volume of the lungs. Expiration occurs when the pressure in the lungs is greater than the pressure of the atmosphere. This occurs when the size of the thoracic cavity decreases.
2. External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood.
3. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and tissues.

Name and briefly describe the three basic processes of respiration.

Asthma is a reaction, usually allergic, characterized by attacks of wheezing and difficult breathing, spasms of the smooth muscles in the walls of smaller bronchi and bronchioles cause the passageways to close partially, resulting in an attack.

Define Asthma.

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