# of Aediles
Minimum age of Aediles
__ were patricians, __ were plebeians in Aediles
can't be killed, fired, or harmed
Aediles performed religious _______
Aediles ensured _______ and _______ supply
chariot racing, gladiators
Aediles provided _______, _______
# of Quaestors
Minimum age of Quaestors
# of Quaestors that collected for government
2 Quaestors collected for _______
Quaestors collected _______
# of Praetors
Minimum age of Praetors
Praetor Urbanus judged _______ and took over _______ if both consuls were away
The other Praetor that is not Urbanus
Jobs in government were held for __ year(s)
People in government could not hold the same job again for __ year(s)
Nobles = _______
Commoners = _______
Career structure = _______ _______
# of Consuls
Minimum age of Consul
Consuls made _______
In Consuls, _______ by one cancels the other
Consuls were in charge of the _______
# of people in Senate
Experience of Senate required
Senate gave _______
Senate had a lot of _______ but no actual _______
Senate wore a white toga with a ______ edge
# of Dictators
Experience of Dictator required
Dictators took over during a _______
Dictators ruled for __ months or _______ if necessary
Dictators were in charge of _______
# of Tribunes
Experience of Tribunes required
Tribunes wore _______ clothes
Tribunes were protected by _______
on the steps outside the Senate
Tribunes met ___________________
In Tribunes, veto by __ cancels __
__ Tribunes took over army if neither Consul wanted to
Tribunes got way by making _______ strike
# of blocks in Comitia Centuriata
In Comitia Centuriata, __ blocks were Patricians, __ blocks were Plebeians
Minimum age of Comitia Centuriata
Comitia Centuriata voted on _______ and _______
Comitia Centuriata voted on _______
Comitia Centuriata _______ officials
Comitia Centuriata collected _______
Aedile and Tribune
All jobs were controlled by Patricians except for 2. One was shared with Plebeians and the other was totally controlled by them. What were these 2 jobs?
So nothing can get done
Why did Rome like jobs with even numbers?
What does Punic mean?
Sardinia and Corsica
Carthage lost Sicily in 241 B.C. after the First Punic War. 3 years later, Rome stole 2 more islands from them. Which 2 were they?
To get silver to pay Rome
After the First Punic war, why did Carthage invade Spain?
surprise attack, Rome had naval blockade
In 218 B.C., the Second Punic War began with Hannibal invading Italy via the Alps. Give 2 reasons why he came through that route.
Hannibal brought a secret weapon with him. What was it and how many were there during the Second Punic War?
Hannibal set off with 100,000. What % of his army was lost crossing the Alps during the Second Punic War?
Rome lost 50,000 soldiers in 217 B.C. at the battle of _ _ _ _ / _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ during the Second Punic War?
Rome lost 80,000 soldiers in 216 B.C at the battle of _ _ _ _ _ _ during the Second Punic War?
old people, young men, slaves
Which 3 groups were now forced into the army during the Second Punic War? (3)
Which 2 groups were refused entry into the army during the Second Punic War? (2)
Who became dictator during the Second Punic War?
burned and salted fields to drive Hannibal south, avoided battle, trained a new army of 200,000 over 2 years
How did Fabius Maximus save Rome during the Second Punic War?(3)
provided supplies to city, stopped allied cities from surrendering
How did the navy save Rome during the Second Punic War? (2)
The Second Punic War lasted 17 years. When did it end?
Who defeated Hannibal at the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. during the Second Punic War?
elephants, 10 warships only, army, foreign policy
What did Carthage lose? (4)
The Third Punic War began in 149 B.C. and lasted 3 years until when?
What was the cause of the Third Punic War?
Cato the elder
Who said for 60 years that Carthage must be destroyed?
What showmanship did Cato the elder use to convince the senate to go to war?
Who was the Roman commander during the Third Punic War?
burned it 3 times, salted it, cursed it, buried it
What did Rome do to Carthage in the end? (3 + 1 e.c.)
What office did Tiberius Gracchus hold?
What year did Tiberius Gracchus hold the office of Tribune?
What is the name of Tiberius Gracchus's controversial law?
# of Iugera a landowner could own
# of Iugera Tiberius Gracchus's eldest 2 sons could own each
What is a Iugera?
fired the tribune, ran for reelection
How did Tiberius Gracchus act illegally? (2)
Senate had no actual power
What did Tiberius Gracchus reveal about the Senate?
Who murdered Tiberius Gracchus?
Who was Tiberius Gracchus's brother?
When was Tiberius Gracchus's brother killed?
created a committee of 3 tribunes to give land to landless, from Carthage
What did Tiberius Gracchus's brother try to accomplish? (2)
When was Marius first elected Consul?
he had not gone through the Cursus Honorum
Why should Marius not have been Consul?
had not waited 10 years
Why should Marius not have been Consul?
When was Marius Consul 5 times in a row? 104 B.C. --- ____ B.C.
swore an oath of loyalty to him, paid their wages, promised land for landless to retire on
Which 3 of Marius's army reforms contributed to the fall of the Republic?
Generals now controlled the army, not the Senate.
How did the changes Marius made weaken the Republic?
To get land for his army.
Why did Marius march on Rome in 100 B.C.?
To get his command back.
Why did Sulla march on Rome in 87 B.C.?
Whoever had the army had power.
What did these 2 marches on Rome prove?
What position did Sulla hold between 82 - 79 B.C.?
enforced the Cursus Honorum
How did Sulla try to restore the Republic?
If 1 man can save it, it's already a Monarchy.
Why could Sulla not possibly succeed in restoring the Republic?
added 400 yes men which destroyed vitality, had them face his large throne, had first and last word
How did Sulla weaken the Senate (apart from proscriptions) (3)
rewards for killing enemies
Proscriptions = ________________
met secretly, one would be Consul each year and give armies to all 3
How did the First Triumvirate work?
all 3 got 100% of army
What did the arrangement in having Consul each year accomplish in the First Triumvirate?
Caesar -- ideas, Crassus -- money, Pompey -- army
Which 3 politicians were in the First Triumvirate and what was special about each one?
They were no longer family, since Julia was Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife.
How did Julia's death cause the demise of the First Triumvirate?
Crassus died fighting Parthians
What happened at the battle of Carrhae in 54 B.C. which further weakened the First Triumvirate?
Who was defeated by Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C.?
What position did Caesar hold after his victory at the battle of Pharsalus?
Who offered Caesar the crown thrice?
Brutus -- save the Republic, Cassius -- jealousy
Which 2 Senators led the assassination of Caesar and what were their motives?
Octavian -- Caesar's heir, Marc Antony -- Caesar's best friend, Lepidus -- Caesar's #2 general
Which 3 politicians were in the Second Triumvirate and what was special about each one?
Where were Caesar's assassins defeated?
Antony would not give Octavian his inheritance, Antony kept calling Octavian "boy," Antony dumped Octavia for Cleopatra, Antony was rumored to want to move the capital to Alexandria
Why did the Second Triumvirate collapse? (4)
Where was Antony defeated?
laws for life -- consul, sacrosanct for life -- tribune, everything for life -- dictator, religion -- Pontifex Maximus
What political powers did Octavian amass from 31 -- 28 B.C.? (4)
To get more power. God -- deus, chief -- princeps, Augustus -- Exalted One Your Majesty
Why did Octavian suddenly retire in 27 B.C. and what did he gain by this action? (3)
wore all purple togas, moved Rome's sacred ditch, renamed Quintilis July, moved the Rostra to face people not Senate, took the title Dictator Perpetuus, increased calendar by 5 days to 365, rebuilt the Forum, added foreigners to Senate, built temple to Venus as largest building and claimed he was related to her, put up statues of himself everywhere
Give at least 10 reasons as to why Julius Caesar was murdered.
doubling its size, making it into a cavalry, making it wear chainmail
Diocletian strengthened the Roman army by (3)
Diocletian divided empire in _______.
tying them to jobs and locations
Diocletian kept control of his people by _________.
Diocletian ruled the _______.
284 -- 305
Diocletian ruled from ____ to ____.
Diocletian banned ___________.
Diocletian saw in a dream _______.
Constantine _______ his empire.
Constantine moved the capital of his Empire from Rome to _______.
the Romans seered him, it was an easier place to defend, it was vital for trade
Constantine moved the capital because ___________. (3)
The new capital of Byzantium was renamed _______.
Constantine died in ____.
legalized all religions, became a Christian on his deathbed
With regard to religion, Constantine _______. (2)
The army of Constantine had __ painted on their shields.
The richest part of Constantine's empire was the _______.
F -- pressure from invasions
(T/F) Theodosius split the empire in half in 395.
(T/F) The Romans used the Goths to defend the frontier of the Wiroman empire during C4.
(T/F) Rome was sacked in 410.
(T/F) Vandalism comes from the name Vandal.
F -- Italy
(T/F) The Ostrogoths settled in Spain.
F -- North Africa
(T/F) The Vandals settled in Italy.
F -- The Franks and Burgundians settled in France.
(T/F) The Franks and Lombards settled in France.
(T/F) The Jutes, Saxons, and Angles settled in Britain.
F -- Spain
(T/F) The Visigoths settled in Italy.
F -- France
(T/F) The Burgundians settled in North Africa.
F -- Attila
(T/F) The Huns were led by Atilla.
(T/F) The Romans and Goths defeated the Huns at the battle of Chalons in 451.
(T/F) The Vandals sacked Rome in 455.
F -- Romulus Augustulus
(T/F) The last West Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus.
F -- 476
(T/F) Romulus Augustulus was deposed in 476 B.C.
(T/F) Romulus Augustulus was replaced by Odoacer as king of Italy.
(T/F) The East Roman Empire lasted another 1000 years (approximately).
The East Roman Empire became known as the __________.
(T/F) People in the West did not realize the East Roman Empire had not fallen for 200 years.
Angles, Saxons, Jutes
Tribes in Britain (3)
Tribe in Spain
Tribes in France (2)
Tribes in Italy (2)
Tribe in North Africa
Which Chinese dynasty ruled during 1600 B.C. -- 1122 B.C.?
Which Chinese dynasty ruled during 1122 B.C. -- 256 B.C.?
Which Chinese dynasty ruled during 256 B.C. -- 202 B.C.
Which Chinese dynasty ruled during 202 B.C. -- 220?
Middle Kingdom, harmony between heaven and earth
Write the Chinese symbols for China and explain what they mean.
How did the Chinese communicate with their gods?
What did the Chinese use to find answers to questions/problems and divine the future?
Mandate of heaven
What did the Chinese call kings divine right to rule?
How did rulers know they were no longer meant to rule?
Born good, always good. You can learn everything from nature.
Write 2 phrases which are Taoist.
Born good, turn bad, need to be retaught. Respect your elders. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Write 3 phrases which are Confucian.
Born bad, always bad. Good gets rewarded, bad gets punished.
Write 2 phrases which are Legalist.
When Confucius said, "I know you know I know you know," what was he referring to?
emperor - people, husband - wife, friend - friend, brother - brother, father - son
How did Confucius believe harmony could be achieved? Give 5 examples.
What is it called when you bow before superiors with your nose to the ground?
Before China's first emperor, how many kingdoms were there?
Zhen, Shih Huang Ti
Who became First Emperor of China in 221 B.C.? Give his first name and his later name.
What event is seen as the cause of China technologically stagnating and eventually falling behind?
scholars, Confucian philosophers, artists
Shih Huang Ti purged/wiped out 3 groups. Which 3 groups were they?
When did Zhen conquer all of China?
First Universal Emperor
Zhen took the name Shih Huang Ti. What does that mean?
Mandate of Heaven
What does the first letter of Shih Huang Ti's title suggest?
What name comes from Chin?
What palace did Shih Huang Ti build?
replicas of other 6 palaces he had conquered
What did Shih Huang Ti build in the Forbidden City to remind him of his victories?
Which philosophy was enforced during Shih Huang Ti's rule?
What happened to Confucians who objected to Legalism during Shih Huang Ti's rule?
took hostages who lived close by
How did Shih Huang Ti control noble families?
Why did Shih Huang Ti wear disguises?
What were burned in 213 B.C. during Shih Huang Ti's rule?
Which few books survived when they were burned during Shih Huang Ti's rule?
built roads and canals
How did Shih Huang Ti improve communication?
The Great Wall
What did Shih Huang Ti build to protect China's northeast?
terra cotta soldiers
What did Shih Huang Ti have made to serve him?
kept killing artists so they would not reveal location
Why did the quality of the terra cotta soldiers get worser and worser during Shih Huang Ti's rule?
Why did Shih Huang Ti take mercury pills?
When did Shih Huang Ti die?
What was in Shih Huang Ti's funeral cart?
forged will told him to kill himself
Why did Shih Huang Ti's eldest son not succeed?
When was Shih Huang Ti's 18th son overthrown?
Which new dynasty came to power in 202 B.C.?