A&P Final Exam, Part 4

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111 terms

B) gallbladder

All of the following are part of the gastrointestinal tract except the
A) stomach.
B) gallbladder.
C) esophagus.
D) small intestine.
E) pharynx

D) spleen

Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the digestive system?
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) pancreas
D) spleen
E) teeth

submucosa

What is the layer of the GI tract wall that contains blood and lymphatic vessels?

motility

What is having the ability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length?

peritoneum

What is the greater omentum is part of?

in the submucosa

Where are enteric neurons found?

uvula

What is the projection hanging from the soft palate?

A) papillae

Which of the following contains taste buds?
A) papillae
B) uvula
C) tonsils
D) fauces

Skeletal

What muscle type is the tounge made up of?

carbs

What does salivary amylase secreted into the oral cavity starts the digestion of?

dentin

What bone-like substance is teeth are primarily composed of?

cementum

What is the dentin of the root covered by?

incisors

Which teeth are adapted to cutting food?

B) duodenum

All of the following are areas of the stomach EXCEPT
A) cardia.
B) duodenum.
C) fundus.
D) body.
E) pylorus.

cheif cells in the stomach

What is pepsinogen produced by?

rugae

What is the mucosa of the stomach, when empty, lies in large folds called?

Stomach

Where does the digestion of proteins by peptides start?

cholecystokinin

What is the hormone that inhibits gastric emptying?

duodenum

Where does the stomach release chyme?

E) alcohol

Which of the following substances can be absorbed by the stomach?
A) amino acids
B) nucleic acids
C) glucose
D) fatty acids
E) alcohol

gastrin

What do G cells secrete?

cholecystokinin

What is the feeling of satiety is caused by?

duodenum

The pancreatic duct transports secretions from the pancreas to the:

A) pepsin

All of the following are substances found in pancreatic juice EXCEPT
A) pepsin.
B) trypsin.
C) chymotrypsin.
D) ribonuclease.
E) lipase.

D) amylase

Which of the following is NOT a protein-digesting enzyme?
A) trypsin
B) chymotrypsin
C) carboxypeptidase
D) amylase
E) elastase

hepatocytes

How is bile produced?

hepatic portal vein

Substances absorbed by the small intestine are carried in the liver by the:

A) red blood cell production

All of the following are functions of the liver EXCEPT
A) red blood cell production.
B) storage of vitamins.
C) synthesis of bile salts.
D) excretion of bilirbin.
E) activation of Vitamin D.

small intestine

Where does most digestion and absorption occur?

ileum

What is the final portion of the small intestine?

peptidase

Which of the following is NOT an enzyme in the breakdown of carbohydrates?
A) pancreatic amylase
B) salivary amylase
C) maltase
D) peptidase
E) lactase

A) diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) active transport

How does absorption in the small intestine occur?

C) triglycerides

Which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
A) monosaccharides
B) amino acids
C) triglycerides
D) nucleic acids

cecum

What is the first part of the large intestine?

cecum

What is the appendix attached to?

A) water.
B) sodium.
C) chloride.
D) vitamins.

What does the large intestine absorb?

Sigmoid colon

The portion of the large intestine just before the rectum is the:

exocrine protein of the pancreas

What is the following:
A) is made of acinar cells.
B) secretes several different enzymes to digest the energy nutrients.
C) is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system.
D) connects to the alimentary canal by the pancreatic duct.

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

What describes the following:

A) stimulates the gall bladder to contract.
B) is released in response to lipids entering the duodenum.
C) stimulates the release of pancreatic juice.
D) slows the movement of chyme into the duodenum.

B) spleen

Which of the following does not release substances into the duodenum?
A) stomach
B) spleen.
C) gall bladder
D) pancreas.
E) liver.

ascending colon

Most of the nutrients have been absorbed from the chyme by the time it reaches the:

cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, recutum

What is the correct order of movement of substances through the large intestine?

Liver

The organ that stores fat, glycogen, iron and certain minerals, and detoxifies certain chemicals is the:

mesentery

The __ is a 20 foot piece of peritoneum that keeps the small intestines from springing out all over.

cephalic phase

The sight, smell and sound of food activates the ___ ____ of digestion.

D) diarrhea

Which of the following is not a change in digestion associated with aging:
A) loss of taste
B) duodenal ulcers
C) constipation
D) diarrhea
E) periodontal disease

D) success

Which of the following is unlikely to be a cause of "emotional eating"?
A) unpleasant feelings like boredom
B) the possibility that carbohydrates raise serotonin levels
C) poor self esteem
D) success
E) stress

intestinal

Which phase of digestion does the following describe?
A) cholecystokinin produces a full feeling
B) secretin stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices

A

Which hepatitis is the infectious kind?

True

True or False: The inner lining of the GI tract is a mucous membrane.

True

True or False: The greater omentum contains many lymph nodes.

False

True or False: The tongue is part of the GI tract.

True

True or False: The lingual tonsil lies at the base of the tongue.

False

True or False: The submandibular glands lie in front of the sublingual glands.

True

True or False: Sympathetic stimulation results in dryness of the mouth.

False

True or False: The enzyme salivary amylase starts the breakdown of proteins in the mouth.

True

True or False: The esophagus lies behind the trachea.

True

True or False: The muscularis of the stomach has three layers.

False

True or False: Parasympathetic stimulation inhibits digestion.

True

True or False: The presence of chyme in the duodenum slows gastric emptying.

False

True or False: The liver is the heaviest organ of the body.

False

True or False: The gallbladder produces bile.

False

True or False: Chief cells are found in the large intestine.

True

True or False: Most of the energy nutrients are small enough to be absorbed in the small intestine by the blood capillaries but the nutrient, fatty acids, must be absorbed into lacteals.

True

True or False: Both food and air pass through the oropharynx so the uvula protects the nasal cavity when swallowing.

False

True or False: The mucosal layer of the large intestine is lined with millions of fingerlike projections called villi.

True

True or False: Many things can stimulate the vomit reflex including irritation, overextension of the stomach and various chemicals.

False

True or False: The cardiac sphincter (cardia) prevents food and acid from moving into the duodenum too quickly.

True

True or False: Aging tends to decrease or cause a loss of digestive functions.

True

True or False: Food has emotional, social and psychological functions as well as its nutritional value.

True

True or False: Both hormones and nerves control the phases of digestion.

True

True or False: Insoluble and soluble fiber have opposite effects on motility but aid in the digestive process and reduce the risk of developing serious digestive disorders.

False

True or False: Dental caries and periodontal disease are essentially the same thing.

gastroenterology

The medical specialty that deals with the structure, function, diagnosis, and treatment of the stomach and intestines is called ____.

ingestion

The physiological term for eating is _______.

peristalsis

The waves of muscular contraction in the GI tract are referred to as ____.

bolus

The food in the mouth is shaped into a rounded mass called the ____.

enamel

The dentin of the crown of a tooth is covered by ____.

esophageal

Swallowing is divided into tree stages: the voluntary stage, the pharyngeal stage, and the _____ stage.

body

The large, central portion of the stomach is called the ____.

parietal cells

Hydrochloric acid of the stomach is produced by ____.

submucosa

The enteric nervous system is found in the _______.

secretin

The intestinal hormone, which decreases gastric secretion, is ____.

pancreatic juice

The acini of the pancreas produce ____.

common bile duct

The common hepatic duct joins the cystic duct to form the ____.

bilirubin

The principal bile pigment is ____.

cholecystokinin (CCK)

The hormone responsible for the ejection of bile from the gallbladder is ____.

villi

The mucosa of the small intestine forms finger-like structures called ____.

lacteal

Each villus of the small intestine has a lymphatic vessel called a ____.

segmentation

The movements of the small intestine are peristalsis and ____.

peptidases

Protein digestion starts with pepsin and is completed by the enzyme ____.

micelles

Bile salts act as emulsifying agents forming tiny spheres called ____.

enterokinase

The inactive form of trypsin is activated by an enzyme called ______.

muscularis

The puckered appearance of the colon is caused by contractions of the ____________________.

bacteria

The last stage of digestion is carried out by ____.

Liver

Kupffer's cells are found in the _____.

hepatitis

An inflammation of the liver is called ______.

mucosa

What is the inner lining of the GI tract?

serosa

What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?

G cells

What secretes the hormone gastrin?

parietal cells

What produces HCl?

chief cells

What secretes pepsinogen?

paneth cells

What secretes lysozyomes?

high-density lipoproteins

What is considered "good" cholesterol?

low-density lipoproteins

What is considered "bad" cholesterol?

botulism

What is a type of food poisoning caused by a bacterial toxin?

Viral disease

What type of disease is hepatitis?

1) Ingestion- The take-in of food through the mouth
2) Mixing and movement of food along the digestive tract through muscle movement.
3) Digestion- The chemical and mechanical breakdown of food.
4) Absorption- The uptake of digested food from the GI tract into the circulation.
5) Defecation- The elimination of indigestible substances from the GI tract.

Name and describe the five basic activities of the digestive system.

1) Parotid glands are located under and in front of the ears between the skin and the masseter muscle.
2) The submandibular glands lie beneath the base of the tongue in the floor of the mouth.
3) The sublingual glands lie in front of the submandibular glands.

Name and briefly describe the location of the different salivary glands.

1. Carbohydrate metabolism
2. Lipid metabolism
3. Protein metabolism
4. Removal of drugs and hormones
5. Excretion of bile
6. Synthesis of bile salts
7. Storage
8. Phagocytosis
9. Activation of Vitamin D

Name the functions of the liver.

Monosaccharides, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids are absorbed into blood capillaries. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles, re-synthesized to triglycerides, and transported as chylomicrons.
Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteals.

Briefly describe the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

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