Lab/Lecture Exam I- Lymphatic System

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Source: Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Maual (7th edition) by: Elaine N. Mariab

lymphatic system

This system's funtions are (1) to transport tissue fluid to the blood vessels, and (2) to protect the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a cite for lymphocytes "policing of body fluids and lymphocyte multiplication. It is a one-way system that carries lymph only towards the heart.

Right lymphatic duct

Drains lymph from the right upper extremity, head, and thorax delivered by the jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal trunks. It empties into the venous circulation at the junstion of the internal jugular vein an the subclavian vein.

Thoracic duct

receives lymph from all other areas of the body with the exception of the right arm, right side of head, and right chest. It empties into the venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian vein.

lymph nodes

Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation

macrophages

Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.

cisterna chyli

the prominent sac of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the digestive viscera

Superficial lymph nodes

cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal nodes

Deep lymph nodes

thoracic, abdominal, intestinal, and mesenteric

subclavian veins

carry blood out of the arms and to the heart

pharyngeal tonsil

lacated at the back of the nose at place called the nasopharynx; unites the back if mouth with back of the throat

palatine tonsil

located at the back of the mouth. cells there that can help fight infection and are removed in tonsilectomies. This is the largest and most often infected

Spleen

The body's largest lymphatic organ which consists of two compartments. One is filled with red pulp (full of RBC that can be released if necessary) and one with white pulp (full of lymphocytes and macrophages)

afferent lymphatic vessels

vessels that travel to the lymph node and are responsible for exposing lymph to the WBCs

efferent lymphatic vessles

vessles that exit from the lymph node

capsule

the surface of the lymph node. It is strong and gives strength

cortex

found below the capsule in the lymph node. With in this structure is the lymphatic nodule, germinal center

medulla

deeper layer under the cortex of the lymph node. It consists of dark staining area which is surrounded by lymph, and plasma cells and acrophages which will respomd if there is something bad that it comes in contact with

Reticular Epithelial Cells

Cells that seal off the cortex of the thymus from the medulla and surround blood vessles and lymphocyte clusters in the cortex. They form a blood-thymus barrier that isolates developing lymphocytes from blood-borne antigens

Thymus

a member of both the lymphatic and endocrine system because it houses developing lymphocytes and secretes hormones that regulate their later activity

lymphatic organs

aka lymphoid organs. have well-deingied anatomical sites and at least partial connective tissue capsules that separate the lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues

lymphatic nodules

a congretation of lymphocytes and macrophages. Often abundant within lymph nodes, tonsils, and appendix

lymphatic tissues

aggrgations of lymphocytes in the connective tissue of mucous membranes and various organs

lymphatic cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells, T lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells, reticular cells

lymph

clear, colorless fluid, similar to blood plasma but low in protein. It originates as fluid that has been taken up by th lymphatic vessels. Contains a large number of lymphocytes

lymphatic vessels

a system that the lymph flows through

lymphatic capillaries

the first of the lymphatic vessels which are microscopic and penetrate nearly every tissue of the body. They are closed at one end; it consists of a sac of endothelial cells that loosely overlap each other like shingles and are tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments that prevent the sac from collapsing

collecting vessles

formed by the convergence of lymphatic capillaries. At irregular intervals, they empty into lymph nodes and they eventually converge to form a larger lymphatic trunk

lymphatic trunk

the convergence of collecting vessels to form a larger vessel which drains a major protion of the body, there are six of these.

collecting ducts

the two areas where the lymphatic trunks convege. These are the largest of the lymphatic ducts

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