American History

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American History

By the 1770s which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority?

trade restrictions

At the time of European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at

500

The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they

brought back news of valuable far eastern spices, drugs, and silk

After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had

sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies

European contact with Native Americans led to

The deaths of millions of native americans who had little resisitance to European diseases

Within a century after Columbus's landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly

90%

The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital city of Tenochtitlan because

Montezuma believed Cortes was Quetzocoatl

Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to

Protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France

The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in

the growth of capitalism

European explorers introduced _____ to the new world

smallpox

Columbus called the native people of the new world indians because

he believed he had skirted the Indies

The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most important for the future United States was

Jamestown

The English treatment of the Irish can be described as

violent and unjust

Spain's dreams of empire began to fade with the

defeat of the spanish Armada

The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by

a joint-stock company

The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by

starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids

Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because

they were unaccustomed to fend for themselves and wasted their time looking for gold

Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can best be described as

saving the colony from collapse

The biggest disrupter of Native American life was

disease

The summoning of Virginia's House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it

was the first of many miniature parliaments to convene in America

A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 was to

create a safe haven for the Catholics

In 1649 Maryland's Act of Toleration

guaranteed toleration to all Christians

Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were

denied the most fundamental rights

Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they

were experienced in rice cultivation

The inhabitants of North Carolina were regarded by their neighbors as

outcasts and irreligious

The colony of Georgia was founded

as a defensive buffer for the valuable Carolinas

King James I opposed the separasists who wanted to break away entirely from the church of England because he

realized that if his subjects could defy him as their spiritual leader, they could defy him as their political leader

The separatists migrated from Holland to the New World in order to

avoid the Dutchification of their children

The mayflower Compact can be described as

a promising step toward genuine self-government

Unlike Separatists, the Puritans

remained members of the Church of England

Among the Puritans, it was understood that

the purpose of government was to enforce God's laws

As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams

established complete religious freedom for all

As a colony, Rhode Island became known for

individualist and independent attitudes

The city of New Haven was settled by

Puritans

After the Pequot War, Puritans efforts to convert Indians to Christianity can best be described as

feeble, not equaling that of the Spanish or the French

King Philip's War resulted in

the lasting defeat of New England's Indians

The New England Confederation

was designed to bolster colonial defense

As a result of England's Glorious Revolution

the Dominion of the New World collapsed

New York was

originally founded by the Dutch

Pennsylvania

the best advertised

One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was

their refusal to do military service

The population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the seventeenth century was notable for its

scarcity of women

In the seventeenth century, due to a high death rate families were both few and fragile in

the Chesapeake colonies

The "headright" system, which made some people very wealthy, consisted of

giving the right to acquire fifty acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America

Seventeenth-century colonial tobacco growers usually respond to depressed prices for their crop by

growing more tobacco to increase the volume of production

Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as

indentured servants

By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom

had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters

Bacon's rebellion was supported mainly by

young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land

The majority of African slaves coming to the New World

were delivered to South America and the West Indies

Many of the slaves who reached North America

were originally captured by African coastal tribes

For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the middle passage" can be best described as

the gruesome ocean voyage to America

The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in

South Carolina

Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South were

land owning small farmers

It was typical of colonial New England adults to

marry early and have several children

The New England economy depended heavily on

fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce

In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England

had a more diversified economy

One feature to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their

rapidly growing populations

The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to

The natural fertility of all Americans

The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was

16

By the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of the colonies?

90%

The most honored profession in early colonial society was

ministry

The least honored profession in early colonial society was

medicine

The leading industry in the American colonies was

Agriculture

The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry

involved the trading of rum for African slaves

When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733, it was intended the act to

inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies

Transportation in colonial America was

slow by any of the means available

Colonial American taverns were all of the following except

frequented mainly by the lower class

By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was

less fervid than when the colonies were established

The Great Awakening

undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies, split colonial churches into several competing denominations, led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges, and was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people

The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as

reserved for the aristocratic few

The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because

it pointed the way to open public discussion

The one valuable resource in New France was

beavers

The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was

fur trapping

The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the

use of primitive guerilla warfare

The war of Jenkin's Ear was

confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia

New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned_________to France in 1748

Louisbourg

The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of

the Ohio River Valley

The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to

link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley

In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington

was defeated at Frot Necessity but was allowed to retreat

The Seven Years' war was also known in America as

The French and Indian War

When the Acadians left Canada, they went to

Louisiana

With the British and American victory in the Seven Years' war

a new spirit of independence arose, as the french threat disappeared

In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763

American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation

The Proclamation of 1763

prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains

Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because

the Indians were in a precarious position

During the Seven Years' War

British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials

When it came to the revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were

reluctant revolutionaries

The american colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on

the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good

Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government

depended on the virtue of its citizenry

The radical whigs feared

the arbitrary power of the monarchy

Mercantilists believed that

a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury

The first Navigation Laws were designed to

eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade

The British Crown's royal veto of colonial legislation

was used sparingly by the British Parliament

Before 1763 the Navigation Laws

were only loosely enforced in the American colonies

A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when _________ assumed charge of colonial policy

George Grenville

The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the

Sugar Act

The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to

raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense

Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because

Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists

"Virtual" representation meant that

every member of Parliament represented all British subjects

The tax on tea was retained when the Townshed Acts were repealed because

it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation

The First Continental Congress

called for a complete boycott of British goods

When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775,

there was no well-defined sentiment for independence

George Washington's selection to lead the colonial army was

largely political

The colonial army evnetually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were

short of gunpowder

One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to

explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted

In a republic, power

comes from the people themselves

Thomas Paine argued that all government officials

should derive their authority from popular consent

When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king

individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good

Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled__________or____________ and the independence seeking Patriots were also known as________

loyalists, tories, whigs

Which of the following fates befell Loyalists after the Revoultionary War

Some fled to England, Some re-established themselves in America, Some had their property confiscated, and some were exiled

Loyalists were least numerous in

New England

The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to

isolate New England

America's first entangling alliamce was with

France

Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when

General Benedict Arnold turned traitor

During the Revolution, the frontier saw much fighting, which

failed to stem the tide of westward-moving pioneers

After the British defeat at Yorktown

the fighting continued for more than a year

The world's first antislavery society was founded by

Quakers in Philadelphia

As part of the egalitarian movement of the American Revolution

several northern states abolished slavery

The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because

a fight over slavery might destroy national unity

The struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in

Virginia

As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward

to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports

One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that

cheap land was easily available

It was highly significant to the course of future events that

economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States

The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was

probably worse than before the war

The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when

all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government

The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to

enforce a tax-collection program

Shays's Rebellion was provoked by

foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers

By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789

prosperity was beginning to return

The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was

James Madison

The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on

the consent of the governed

Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the

absence of a bill of rights

When the new government was launched in 1789

the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years

The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a

cabinet

Despite the flourishing cities, America's population was still about________rural.

90%

One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it

did not provide guarantees for individual rights

One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to

draw up and pass a bill of rights

As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to

bolster the national credit

Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt

was beneficial, because, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success

Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from

customs duties and excise tax

Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was

based on the "necessary and proper" or "elastic" clause in the Constitution

Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on

states' rights

The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government

levied an excise tax on whiskey

The Founding Fathers had not envisioned the existance of permanent political parties because they

saw opposition to the government as disloyal

The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political and social life is

The French Revolution

In Jay's Treaty, the British

promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest

John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain

created deeper splits between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following except

supporting high taxes

In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because

Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the

South and West

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