Slepski A&P 102 final part 2

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association

White fibers that connect and transmit nerve impulses between the gyri in the same cerebral hemisphere are called ______________ fibers.

glutamate; aspartate; GABA

Amino acids that act as excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain are _____________ and _____________; amino acid, __________, acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

dopamine

The substania nigra is particularly rich in the neurotransmitter ____________.

ischemic; hemorragic

The two principal types of cerebrovascular accident are 1)_________, due to decreased blood supply, and 2)___________, due to rupture of a blood vessel in the brain.

generator potential

A sense organ transduces a stimulus into a ______________.

(first-order) sensory/afferent

Nerve impulses are conducted from a receptor to the central nervous system by _____________ neurons.

analgesia

The medical term for pain relief is_________________.

substania nigra; basal ganglia

Parkinson's disease is associated with the deterioration of the neural connections between the _____________ of the midbrain and the _________ of the cerebrum.

hippocampus

Long-term potentiation is a phenomenon believed to occur in a region of the cerebrum known as the _____________.

circadian

The daily sleep-wake cycle is known as _____________ rhythm.

stereognosis

The ability to recognize by "feel" the size, shape, and texture of an object is called __________________.

sensation

_____________ is the conscious or unconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli.

proprioceptors

Receptors that provide information concerning body position and movement are classified as _______________.

receptor potential

If a stimulus directly increases or decreases the exocytosis of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles, it is said to elicit a_______________.

adaptation

If a stimulus directly increases or decreases the exocytosis of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles, it is said to elicit a ___________________.

referred pain

Visceral pain that is perceived as localized in the skin served by the same segment of the spinal cord is called _______________.

phantom pain

Pain that is perceived as occuring in an amputated limb is called______________.

tendon organs

Proprioceptors that monitor the force of muscle contraction are the ____________________.

thermoreceptors

Receptors the detect changes in temperature are called________________.

REM

Most dreaming occurs during the _______ stage of sleep.

reticular activating system

Awakening from sleep involves increased activity in fibers known as the ___________________ that project from the brain ste through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex.

primary motor area (precentral gyrus)

The ______________ of the cerebral cortex is the major control region for initiation of voluntary movement.

otoliths (otoconia)

The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are covered in part by a layer of clacium carbonate crystals called_______________.

semicircular ducts

The ______________ have the primary role in maintenance of dynamic equilibrim.

glaucoma

_______________ is an abnormally high intraocular pressure due to buildup of aqueous humor.

taste buds

The receptors for gustatory sensations are located in the ________________.

lysozyme

A bactericidal enzyme present in lacrimal fluid is _________.

cornea; sclera

The fiberous tunic of the eyeball consists of _______________.

ciliary muscle

The shape of the lens is altered for near and far vision by the ______________.

pupil

The hole in the center of the iris is the _________.

rods;cones

Photoreceptors called ___________ are most important for seeing shades of gray in dim light, while ______________ provide colr vision in bright light.

macula lutea

The area in the eact center of the posterior portion of the retina whose name translates literally as "yellow spot" is the _______________.

cataract

The leading cause of blindness is a loss of transparency of the lend known as ______________.

iris

The anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye are separated by the ___________.

lens

The anterior and posterior cavities of the ye are separated by the ____________.

aqueous humor

Intraocular pressure is produced mainly by _______________.

vitreous body

The jellylike substance filling the posterior cavity of the eye is the ______________.

refractory period

Bending of light rays as they pass through different media is called ________________.

accommodation

The increase in curvature of the lens near vision is called _______________.

presbyopia

With aging, the lens loses its elasticity, and therefore, its ability to change shape. This condition is called ________________.

convergence

The medial movement of the eyeballs so that both are directed toward the object being viewed is called ________________.

rhodopsin

The photopigment in rods is ________________.

retinal; A

The light-absorbing portion of all visual photopigments is ___________, which is derived from vitamin ______.

tympanic membrane

The external auditory canal and the middle ear are separated by the ___________.

malleus; incus; stapes

The auditory ossicles are the ____________, _________, and the _________.

auditory (eustachian) tube

The middle ear and the nasopharynx are connected by the __________________.

cochlea; vestibule; semicircular canals

The three areas of the bony labyrinth are the __________, the_________, and the _____________.

cardiac muscle; smooth muscle; glands

Effector tissues for autonomic neurons are _____________, ______________, and ____________.

preganglionic

An autonomic motor neuron that extends from the CNS to an autonomic ganglion is called a _____________.

postganglionic

An autonomic motor neuron that extends from an autonomic ganglion to a visceral effector is called a _______________.

thoracolumbar

Based on the location of the preganglionic cell bodies, the sympathetic division of the ANS is sometimes called the _______________ division.

craniosacral

Based on the location of the preganglionic cell bodies, the parasympathetic division of the ANS is sometimes called the ______________ division.

terminal (intramural)

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in _______________ ganglia in or near visceral effectors.

prevertebral (collateral)

Ganglia lying close to large abdominal arteries that receive sympathetic preganglionic fibers are the _________________ ganglia.

Sympathetic trunk (paravertebral, vertebral)

_______________ ganglia lie in a vertical row on either side of the vertebral column from the base of the skull to the coccyx.

prevertebral (collateral)

The celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia, which are named for the large abdominal arteries they are near, are examples of _________________ ganglia.

white rami communicantes

Sympathetic preganglionic fibers that connect the anterior ramus of a spinal nerve with sympathetic trunk ganglia are collectively called the ___________________.

heart

The effector for sympathetic postganglionic fibers leaving the the middle and inferior cervical ganglia is the ____________.

gray rami communicantes

Sympathetic postganglionic fibers that connect sympathetic trunk ganglia with spinal nerves are collectively called the __________________.

sympathetic chains

Axon collaterals of the fibers of the white rami communicantes that extend through multiple sympathetic trunk ganglia are called __________________.

splanchnic nerves

Sympathetic preganglionic fibers that pass through sympathetic trunk ganglia to terminate in prevertebral ganglia are called _____________________.

acetylcholine

Cholinergic neurons release the neurotransmitter ___________________.

acetylcholinesterase

The enzyme that inactivates acetylcoline is_______________________.

norepinephrine; epinephrine

Adrenergic neurons release the neurotransmitters ______________ or ______________.

target

The specific cells affected by a particular hormone are called ____________ cells.

paracrines; autocrines

Local hormones that act on neighboring cells are called ____________, while those that act on the same cell that secretes them are called ________________.

eicosanoids

Postglandins and leukotrienes belong to the structural (chemical) class of hormones known as ________________, which are derived from fatty acids.

liver

Specific proteins that transport most steriod hormones in the blood are synthesized in the __________.

second messanger

The role of cyclic AMP in the function of water-soluble hormones is to act as a(n) _____________.

phosphodiesterase

Cyclic AMP is inactivated by the enzyme__________________.

G-protein

Receptors on the outer surface of target cell membranes are linked to adenylate cyclase molecules on the inner surface by molecules called _____________.

synergistic

When two hormones complement each other's action and both are needed for full expression of the hormonal effects, the interaction is called a(n)_____________.

hypothalamus

Release of hormones from the adenohypophysis is regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones secreted by the ______________________.

tropins (tropic hormones)

Hormones that influence endocrine glands other than their source are called _________________.

somotostatin

GHIH, or _______________, inhibit the release of hGH.

adrenal cortex

The target organ for ACTH is the ______________.

uterus; mammary glands

The target organs for oxytocin are the ___________ and the ___________.

hypothalamus; ADH

Lower than normal water concentration in the blood is sensed by osmorereceptors in the ________________, which activate the cells that synthesize and release the hormone __________.

iodine; tryrosine

Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are sythesized by attaching _________ atoms to the amino acid ____________.

calorigenic

The increase in body temperature resulting from increased metabolic rate is called the __________ effect of thyroid hormones.

calcitonin

The parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete ___________.

kidney; sodium (chloride, bicarbonate)

The principal target organ for aldosterone is the ______________, where it stimulates the reabsorption of ___________ ions and the excretion of ____________ ions.

cortisol

The glucocorticoid that is most abundant and that is responsible for most of glucocorticoid activity is ___________.

androgen

DHEA is the principal _____________ secreted by the adrenal cortex.

adrenal medulla

Hormones that are sympathomimetic are secreted by the ______________.

glucagon; insulin; somatostatin (GHI)

The apha cells of the pancreas secrete ___________, while the beta cells secrete ____________, and the delta cells secrete___________.

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