Psychology 101 Final Review

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Professor Bullis's Psychology 101 review for the final. Good luck everyone!

Wilhelm Wundt

founder of psychology

Skinner's Principle

Organisms tend to repeat responses that result in positive outcomes; they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative responses

Applied Psychology

branch of psychology that is concerned with every day, practical problems

Theory

a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations

Group therapy

the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group. 4-15 people, less expensive, groups' members function as therapists for each other

Hypothesis

tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables

Behavior therapy

involves application of the principle of learning to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behavior. Based on research from B.F. Skinner, Hans Eysenck, and Joseph Wolpe- Includes systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, and social skills training

Operational definition

describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable

Antianxiety drugs

reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness including valium, Xanax and antivan

Scholarly journal

a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry

Dopamine/ schizophrenia

class of disorders marked by fragmentation of thought processes including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior - may be caused by an increased amount of dopamine

Experimental research

method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes any changes that occur in a second variable result

Tardine dyskinesia

Neurological disorders marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth, tongue, and face - Side effect of antipsychotic drugs

Dependent Variable

the variable that gets changed

Independent Variable

the variable that causes change

Antidepressant drugs

gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression. Takes 1-2 weeks to reduce symptoms

Synapse

a junction where the information is transmitted from one neuron to another

Terminal Buttons

small knobs that secrete chemicals which are called neurotransmitters

Lithium

a chemical used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders

Reuptake

a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron

REM sleep

Rapid Eye Movement, dreaming and muscle relaxation; this is the 5th stage of sleep

Lethal Overdose

Can occur with stimulants, sedatives or narcotics

Classical Conditioning

a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

Shaping

the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired result

Negative reinforcement

occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversion (unpleasant) stimulus (torture)

Attention

involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events

Schema

an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events

Language/ Generative

meaning a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate and endless array of meaning

Skinner's language learning principle

children learn language the same way as they learn everything else: imitation, reinforcement, and shaping

Age/ 2nd language

the younger the learner the better, prior to the age of seven

Achievement tests

measure previous learning instead of potential

Fetal stage

third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth. Capable of movement at this stage

Age of viability

the age at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birth

Erikson's disease

occurs after a failure to complete one of Erikson's stages

Consistency and distinctiveness

two major aspects of people that are defined by personality

Conservation

Piaget's theory of development: ages 2-7 symbolic thought

Psycho Analysis

Freud's method for treating mental disorders

Id

pleasure principle

Ego

reality principle

Superego

moral component

Appraisal of stressful events

subjective, what may be stressful to you is not to someone else and vice versa. 3 types: approach - approach, avoid - approach, avoid -avoid

Panic disorders

recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly or unexpectedly

Bipolar disorder

formerly known as manic-depressive, it is marked by the experience of both depressive and manic periods

Insight therapy

Clients engage in complex verbal interaction with their therapists with the goal being to pursue increased insight regarding their problems and to sort through possible solutions

Psychiatrists

are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. They prescribe drugs as well

Clinical Psychologists

specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and full-fledges mental disorders

Free Association

when clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feeling exactly as they occur with as little censorship as possible

Resistance

refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy

Transference

when clients start relating to therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their life

Client-Centered Therapy

created by Carl Roger, an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy

Cognitive Therapy

an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.

Empiricism

the premise that knowledge should be acquired though observation

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