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Urine leaving the kidneys travels along the following sequential pathway to the exterior

ureters -> urinary bladder -> urethra

Which organ or structure does NOT belong in the urinary system

gallbladder

The openings of the urethra and the two ureters mark an area on the internal surface of the urinary bladder called the

trigone

The initial factor that determines if urine production occurs is the

filtration

Along with the urinary system, the other systems of the body that affect the composition of body fluids are

integumentary, respiratory, and digestive

Seen in section, the kidney is divided into

an outer cortex and an inner medulla

The basic functional unit in the kidney is the

nephron

The three concentric layers of connective tissue that protect and anchor the kidneys are the

renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia

Dilation of the afferent arteriole and glomerular capillaries and constriction of the efferent arteriole causes

elevation of glomerular blood pressure

Blood supply to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron is provided by the

peritubular capillaries

In a nephron, the long tubular passageway through which the filtrate passes includes

proximal and distal convoluted tubules and loop of Henle

The primary site of regulating water, sodium, and potassium ion loss in the nephron is the

loop of Henle and collecting duct

The primary site for secretion of substances into the filtrate is the

distal convoluted tubule

The three pricesses involved in urine formation are

filtration, reabsorption, and secretion

The filtration of plasma that generates approximately 180 liters/day of filtrate occurs in the

renal corpuscle

Approximately 60-70 percent of the water is reabsorbed in the

proximal convoluted tubule

The portion of the renal segment that is under aldosterone stimulatino is the

distal convoluted tubule

The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) are separated by a U-shaped tube called the

loop of Henle

The location and orientation of the carrier proteins determine whether a particular substance is reabsorbed or secreted in

active transport, cotransport, countertransport

The glomerular filtration rate is regulated by

autoregulation, hormonal regulation, autonomic regulation

The pressure which tends to draw water out of the filtrate and into the plasma, opposing filtration, is the

blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)

The three primary waste products found in a representative urine sample are

ions, metabolites, nitrogenous wastes

The average pH for normal urine is about

6.0

The mechanism responsible for the reabsorption of organic and inorganic compounds from the tubular fluid is

cotransport

Countertransport resembles cotransport in all respects except

the two transported ions move in opposite directions

The primary site of nutrient reabsorption in the nephron is the

proximal convoluted tubular

In countercurrent multiplication, the countercurrent referes to the fact that an exchange occurs between

fluids moving in opposite directinos

The result of the countercurrent multiplication mechanism is

increased solute concentration in the descending limb of loop of Henle

When antidiuretic hormone levels rise, the distal convoluted tubular becomes

more permeable to water, water reabsorption increases

The results of the effect of aldosterone along the DCT, the collecting tubular and the collecting duct are

increased conservation of sodium ions and water

When urine leaves the kidney, it travels to the urinary bladder via the

ureters

The expanded, funnel-shaped upper end of the ureter in the kidney is the

renal pelvis

Contraction of the muscular bladder forces the urine out of the body through the

urethra

During the micturition reflex, increased afferent fiber activity in the pelvic nerves facilitates

parasympathetic motor neurons in the sacral spinal cord

Urine reaches the urinary bladder by the

peristaltic contractions of the ureters

In males, enlargement of the prostate gland compresses the urethra and restricts the flow of urine causing

urinary retention

The system that monitors distention of the urinary bladder and controls urination is the

nervous system

The vital function(s) performed by the nephrons in the kidneys is (are)

production of filtrate, reabsorption of organic substrates, reabsorption of water and ions

The renal corpuscle consits of

Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus

The filtration process within the renal corpuscle involves passage across three physical barriers, which include the

capillary endothelium, basal lamina, glomerular epithelium

The thin segments in the loop of Henle are

freely permeable to water; relatively impermeable to ions and other solutes

The thick segments in the loop of Henle contain

transport mechanisms that pump materials out of the filtrate

The collecting system in the kidney is responsible for

making final adjustments to the sodium ion concentration and volume of urine

Blood arrives at the renal corpuscle by way of an

afferent arteriole

Sympathetic innervation into the kidney is responsible for

decreasing the GFR and slowing the production of filtrate; stimulation of renin release; altering the GFR by changing the regional pattern of blood circulation

When plasma glucose concetrations are higher than the renal threshold, glucose concentrations in the filtrate exceed the tubular maximum (Tm) and

glucose appears in the urine

The outward pressure forcing water and solute molecules across the glomerulus wall is the

filtration pressure

The opposing forces of the filtration pressure at the glomerulus are the

capsular hydrostatic pressure and glomerular hydrostatic pressure

The amount of filtrate produced in the kidneys each minute is the

glomerular filtration rate

Inadequate ADH secretion results in the inability to reclaim the water entering the filtrate, causing

dehydration

Under normal circumstances virtually all the glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients are reabsorbed before the filtrate leaves the

proximal convoluted tubule

Aldosterone stimulates ion pumps along the distal convoluted tubule, the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct, causing a

reduction in the number of sodium ions lost in the urine

The high osmotic concentrations found in the kidney medulla are primarily due to

presence of sodium ions, chloride ions, and urea

The substances that influence the GFR by regulating blood pressure and volume are

renin, erythropoietin, ADH

Angiotensin II is a potent hormone that

causes constriction of the efferent arteriole at the nephron, triggers the release of ADH in the CNS, stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and epinephrine by the adrenal medulla

Sympathetic innervation of the afferent arterioles causes a

decrease in GFR and decrease of filtrate production

During periods of strenuous exercise, sympathetic activation causes the blood flow to

increase to skin and skeletal muscles; decrease to kidneys

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