Aurora University: Pathophysiology Final

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Hypospadias:

The opening of the urethra is on the underside (ventral surface), rather than at the end, of the penis (congenital disorder)

Epispadias:

The opening of the urethra is on the dorsal side of the penis (congenital disorder)

Phimosis:

Tightening of the prepuce or foreskin that prevents its retraction over the glands (congenital disorder)

Paraphimosis:

The prepuce is so tight that it cannot re-cover the glands (congenital disorder)

Cryptorchidism (cryp-torch-i·dism):

Undescended testis (congenital disorder)

Balanitis (bal·a·ni·tis):

Inflammation of glans (inflammatory disorder)

Balanoposthitis (bal·a·no·pos·thi·tis):

Inflammation of the glans penis and of the foreskin (inflammatory disorder)

Epididymitis (ep·i·did·y·mi·tis):

Inflammation of the epididymis (inflammatory disorder)

Orchitis (or·chi·tis):

Inflammation of the testis (inflammatory disorder)

Prostatis:

Inflammation of prostate (accute or chronic -inflammatory disorder)

Squamous cell carcinoma:

Most common type of cancer in the penis and
most common type of scrotal cancer.

Prostate:

Most common cancer of males in the US.
2nd leading cause of death due to cancer in males in US.

Peyronie's disease:

Localized and progressive fibrosis of unknown origin that affects the tunica albuginea of the penis; dense fibrous plaque formation; results in bowing of penis.

Psychogenic causes of ED:

performance anxiety, depression, strained relationship, and psychotic disorders like schizophrenia.

Organic causes of ED:

Parkinsons, stoke, CNS trauma, uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, antidepressants, antihypertensives, alcohol abuse, aging

Priapism (pri-a-pism):

Involutary, prolonged abnormal and painful erection

Hydrocele:

Fluids in the layers of the tunica vaginalis

Hematocele (he·ma·to·cele):

Accumulation of blood in the tunica vaginalis; caused by scrotal trauma, abdominal surgery, bleeding disorder, testicular malignancy.

Spermatocele:

An abnormal sac (cyst) that develops in the epididymis

Varicocele:

An abnormal enlargement of the vein that is in the scrotum draining the testicles

Testicular torsion:

Twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testis

Benign Prostatic hypertrophy:

Non-malignant enlargement of the prostate; 50 % of men 60+ have it; symptoms are dut to obstruction of urethra.

Valvitis:

Inflammation of the vulva

Folliculitis:

Infection of the hair follicles of the mons or labia majora

Bartholin's cyst:

Fluid filled sac due to obstruction of duct of bartholin's gland.

Vaginitis:

Inflammation of the vagina caused by chemicals, foreign bodies, infections.

Cervicitis:

Inflammation of cervix, whcih can be acute or chronic; cervix is reddened and edematous

Dyspareunia (dys·pa·ru·nia):

Painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes

Cervical polyps:

Most common lesion of cervix

Endometritis:

Inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium); symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding foul smelling discharge.

Endometriosis:

A condition in which the tissue that behaves like the cells lining the uterus (endometrium) grows in other areas of the body, causing pain, irregular bleeding, and possible infertility.

Adenomyosis (ade·no·my·o·sis):

Uterine thickening that occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, moves into the outer muscular walls of the uterus.

Leiomyomas:

Uterine fibroid tumors are noncancerous growths in the uterus. Frequently found in women between the ages 30-45, fibroids are the most common type of abnormal pelvic growth in women.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:

Infalmmation of the upper reproductive tract such as the uterus, ballopian tubes and ovaries.

Ectopic Pregnancy:

When fertilized ovum implants outside uterine cavity; common sites are fallopian tubes and pouch of douglas.

Oligomenorrhea:

Infrequent menstruation with cycles more than 35 days apart

Polymenorrhea:

Frequent menstruation with cycles less than 27 days apart

Metrorrhagia:

Bleeding between periods

Menorrhagia (men·or·rha·gia):

Escessive menstruation in duration or clotting.

Menometrorrhagia (meno·met·ror·rha·gia):

Heavy bleeding during and in between periods

Dysmenorrhea:

Pain w/menstruation

Galactorrhea:

Secretion of breast milk in non-lactating breast

Breast Cancer:

Most common cancer of females; 1 in 8 get it. 2nd most common cause of cancer deaths in females after lung cancer.

Hematemesis (he·ma·tem·e·sis):

Blood in the vomitus.

Melena:

Black, "tarry" feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage

Odynophagia (o-dyn-o·pha·gia ):

Painful swallowing

Cleft lip and palate:

Facial and oral malformations that occur very early in pregnancy, while the baby is developing inside its mother. Clefting results when there is not enough tissue in the mouth or lip area, and the tissue that is available does not join together properly.

Stomatitis:

An inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth, which may involve the cheeks, gums, tongue, lips, throat, and roof or floor of the mouth

Gingivitis:

Inflammation of the gums; most common infection of the body.

Glossitis:

Inflammation of the tongue.

Tonsillitis:

Inflammation of the tonsils

Sialadenitis (sia-lad·a·ni·tus):

Inflammation of the salivary glands

Parotitis:

Inflammation of the parotid salivary glands (mumps).

Esophageal Web (aka: rings):

Rings and webs are the most common structural abnormalities in the esophagus. Most of these structural lesions are asymptomatic but can cause dysphagia.

Esophageal diverticula:

A diverticulum is a sac or pouch arising from a tubular organ, such as the esophagus.

Achalasia cardia:

Achalasia Cardia is primarily a disease of esophagus in which lower end of esophagus (Lower Esophageal Sphincter-LES) does not relax properly in response to food intake and there is inappropriate and ineffective motility (Peristalsis) of the body of esophagus. This leads to impaired emptying of esophagus and gradual dilatation of this tubular structure. There is thickening of lower end along with increase in fibrous tissue in muscular layer of esophagus.

Mallory-Weiss tears:

Longitudinal tears that occur in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, where it connects to the stomach, which may bleed.

Esophagitis:

A general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus, the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach.

Pyloric stenosis:

A narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine.

Hiatus Hernia:

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of your stomach pushes upward through your diaphragm. Your diaphragm normally has a small opening (hiatus) that allows your food tube (esophagus) to pass through on its way to connect to your stomach. The stomach can push up through this opening and cause a hiatal hernia.

Gastritis:

An inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the lining of the stomach (acute or chronic).

Peptic ulcer:

Is erosion in the lining of the stomach, in either in the stomach or the duodenum.

Hirschsprung's disease:

A blockage of the large intestine due to improper muscle movement in the bowel (congenital condition).

Enteritis (en·ter·i·tis):

Inflammation of the small intestine.

Colitis:

Inflammation of the large intestine.

Peritonitis:

Inflammation of the peritoneum.

Chron's Disease:

An autoimmune disease that is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It usually affects the intestines, but may occur anywhere from the mouth to the end of the rectum (anus).

Adenomatous polyps:

Benign growths on the lining of the colon or large intesting and although benign by definition, are the most common cause of colorectal cancer.

Cirrhosis:

Scarring of the liver and poor liver function as a result of chronic liver disease.

Splenomegaly:

Enlarged spleen

Gynecomastia:

Breast enlargement.

Hepatic encephalopathy:

A worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood.

Cholelithiasis (cho·le·li·thi·a·sis):

Production of gallstones (pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder)

Cholecystitis (cho·le·cys·ti·tis):

Sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdominal pain.

Acute pancreatitis:

Inflammation of of the pancreatitis which is a life-threatening condition; 10 % of people die from it.

Pancreatic Cancer:

4th leading cause of death in US; A tumor or cancer in the pancreas may often grow without any symptoms at first, which may mean pancreatic cancer is more advanced when it is first found.

Hyperlipidemia:

An elevation of lipids (fats) in the bloodstream. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol esters (compounds), phospholipids and triglycerides. They're transported in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins.

Marasmus:

One component of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), the other being kwashiorkor . It is a severe form of malnutrition caused by inadequate intake of protein and calories , and it usually occurs in the first year of life, resulting in wasting and growth retardation.

Cystocele:

Herniation of bladder through vagina

Rectocele:

Herniation of rectum through vagina

Enterocele:

Herniation of small intestine through vagina.

Uterine Prolapse:

Bulging of uterus through vagina.

Salpingitis (sal·pin·gi·tis):

Inflammation of a fallopian or eustachian tube

Oophoritis (oa·pho·ri·tis):

Inflammation of one or both ovaries—called also ovaritis

Ulcerative Colitis:

Ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea. Colitis can be debilitating and sometimes can lead to life-threatening complications.
Ulcerative colitis usually affects only the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum. It occurs only through continuous stretches of your colon, unlike Crohn's disease, which occurs in patches anywhere in the digestive tract and often spreads deep into the layers of affected tissues.

Chron's Disease:

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea and even malnutrition.
The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue. Like ulcerative colitis, another common IBD, Crohn's disease can be both painful and debilitating and sometimes may lead to life-threatening complications.

Neoplasm:

A new growth of tissue serving no physiological function; tumor.

Hepatitis:

Inflammation of Liver

Hematomegaly:

Enlargement of Liver

Ascites:

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen—called also hydroperitoneum

Encephalopathy:

A disease of the brain; especially one involving alterations of brain structure

Spina bifida:

Neural tube defect caused by infection or trauma resulting in absence of arches and dorsal spine of one or more vetebra; most common area is .

Meningocele:

Herniation of spinal arachnoid and duramatter thru vertebral defect.

Meningomyelocele:

Herniation of spinal meninges and part of the spinal cord thru a vertebral defect

Craniosynostosis:

Premature closure of cranial sutures, which can cause brain damage due to compression.

Microcephaly:

Small skull, caused by chromosomal abnormalities, exposure to toxins during first timester, radiation or infections

Anencephaly:

Absence of skull and part of brain; fatal.

Arnold-Chiari malformation:

Caudal displacement of the medualla and cerebellum into the cervical region of the vetebral canal

Thyrotoxicosis:

Clinical syndrome that results when tissues are exposed to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones.

Graves Disease:

Thyroid gland releases the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which control body metabolism.
If the body makes too much thyroid hormone, the condition is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism.) Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Cretinism:

Congenital lack of thyroid hormone; occurs in children.

Myxedema:

Lack of thyroid hormone in adults.

Anti-diuretic hormone:

Increased production leads to hyponatremia (low sodium) and is most common cause of edema.

Growth hormone:

Increased production leads to gigantism; increased production after puberty leads to acromegaly (protruding jaw) and decreased production leads to dwarfism.

Diabetes Mellitus:

Chronic disorder resulting in imbalance between insulin availability and need, leading to:
Inability to transport glucose into body cells
high levels of glucose in blood
Starvation of body cells
Breakdown of fat and proteins

Type 1 diabetes:

Juvenile, early onset, insuline dependent, 5-10% of cases, usually diagnosed before 30, genetic predisposition

Type 2 diabetes:

Adult/late onset, non-insulin dependent, cells resistant to insulin, 90-95% of cases, related to weight, treatment is diet, exercise, oral hypoglycemic drugs.

Cerebral Palsy:

Group of disorders marked by some degree of motor impairment caused by brain damage just before, during or immediately after delivery.

Cerebro-vascular accidents/stroke:

3rd leading cause of death...Stages.-Transient Ischemic Attack, Stroke in evolution and Complete stroke.
Types-thrombotic, embolic, hemorrhagic

Spinal cord injury:

Most common sites: C1-2, C 4-7, T 10-12

Encephalitis:

Inflammation of brain parenchyma.

Myelitis:

Inflammation of spinal cord.

Meningitis:

Inflammation of meninges.

Encephalomyelitis:

Inflammation of brain and spinal cord

Types of NS infections:

Bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal and aseptic

Alzheimer's disease:

Protein in neurons becomes distorted and twisted, accumulating in neurons, nerve cells degenerate plaque develops causing disruption of nerve inpulses.

Parkinson's disease:

Disorder of basal ganglia; deficiency of dopamine; bradykinesia and hypokinesia.

Bradykinesia:

Slowness of voluntary movement

Hypokinesia:

Decreased frequency of movement.

Wernicke's encehalopathy:

Due to deficiency of thiamine (vitamin b1)

Multiple sclerosis:

Demylelinating disorder of CNS, causing short circuits; progressive paresthesia (loss of sensation).

Amytotropic lateral sclerosis:

-degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, which deal w/movement. Symptoms-muscle weakness, wasting and atrophy.

Muscular Dystrophy:

Degenerative disorder that affect muscle fibers; characterized by progressive symmetric muscle weakness and atrophy resulting in immobility and deformity

Four types of Muscular Dystrophy:

Duchenne's-X linked recessive
Facioscapulohumeral
Limb girdle
Myotonic

Seizures:

Involuntary bodily movement caused by abnormal electrical activity of the brain.

Myopia:

Nearsightedness; difficulty of far vision.

Hyperopia:

Farsightedness; difficulty of near vision.

Astigmatism:

Unequal or irregular curvature of the cornea or lens or both

Presbyopia:

Loss of elasticity w/aging leading to difficulty in accommodation.

Nystagmus:

Involuntary abnormal movement of one or both eyes

Ptosis:

Paralysis of upper eyelid due to cranial nerve trama

Entropion:

Turning in of eyelids

Ectropion:

Turning out of eyelids

Blepharitis:

Inflammation of eyelid margin

Stye:

Infection of sebaceous gland of eyelid

Dacrocystitis:

Inflammation of lacrimal sac

Keratitis:

Inflammation of cornea

Trachoma:

Infection of eye by chlamydia trachomatis

Retinitis:

Inflammation of retina

Uveitis:

inflammation of uvea (choroid)

Scleritis:

Inflammation of sclera

Arcus Senilis:

Grayish white ring with aging due to depositon of fat

Kayser Fleisher ring:

Golden brown ring due to deposition of copper.

Cataract:

Opacity or cloudy lens or corena

Glaucoma:

Increased intraocular pressure due to excessive accumulation of aqueous humor; damages retina and optic nerve leading to blindness.

Conductive hearing loss:

When sound is blocked in the external or middle ear; wax, foreign body, hole in tympanic membrane, scar tissue in tympanic membrane, otitis media, ottsclerosis.

Sensineural hearing loss:

When there is damage to organ of corti or auditory nerve; infecton, trauma, ototoxic drugs, loud sound, presbycusis, congential deafness.

Osteoporosis:

Decreased bone mass or density; high risk of fractures.

Paget's disease:

Excessive reabsorption of spongy bone followed by accelerated formation of softened bone.

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