Sociology Final Chapter 4

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Social stratification is a profoundly important subject in sociology because...?

almost every aspect of our lives, from family size to how much money we need, is linked to our status in society.

Which of the following statements about economic inequality in the US is true?

The poorest 20% in the US have 4.2% of the national income.

The most common form of a master-slave stratification system in the modern world is the ______ system.

debt bondage

Which of the following is an ascribed status that can lead to statues inconsistency?

gender

Sociologists are using the _____method of identifying social class when they rely on a group of people from the community to rate or locate people in the class structure.

Repuational

Which of the following statements about caste system is accurate?

People must marry within their caste.

The term "life chances" refers to...?

the opportunities people have for obtaining desirable resources.

Social class affected the life chances of those involved in the TItanic tragedy because....?

People at the first class level were allowed to leave first.

According to the absolute definition of poverty in the United States, persons are poor when they...?

Lack the income needed to sustain a minimum standard of living.

Which of the following is NOT a cause of the feminization of poverty

Reaction to the feminist movement.

Social mobility refers to:

The movement of individuals and groups between class positions.

Hank was a factory worker and never graduated from high school. His son, however, went to college. Sociologist use the concept of ______ to understand the different attainments of father and son.

Intergenerational mobility

The widening disparity between the rich and the poor in the US can be attributed to all of the following except:

An increase in union workers.

All of the following are sources of structural mobility over the last two decades except:

low birth rates in lower classes.

Oscar Lewis characterized people living in a "culture of poverty" as having all of the following except:

future oriented

Which fo the following statements about race and ethnicity is true?

While the people's physical features do not change when they move to another country, their racial identification as blacks or whites may change.

Tiger Woods, as an African American, has created the acronym Cablinasian to describe his mixed racial background. Mr Woods is an example of all of the following Except:

the definition of race is socially perceived construction.

All ethnic groups share:

A distinctive cultural heritage.

Which of the following is an example of prejudice?

Feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group

Why has racism thrived in the period since European expansion into the rest of the world?

All of the above.

A degree of human prejudice can be explained by the tendency of human beings to place the blame for one's troubles on persons incapable of offering much resistance. This device is known as...?

scapegoating

The long histories of discrimination in education, the economy, politics, and other areas of american life has resulted in....

Institutionalized discrimination

A common criticism of the 'culture of poverty' theories is:

it blames the poor for circumstances beyond control

As a sociological concept, ethnicity refers to...?

Cultural practices and outlooks, including language, history, ancestry, religion, and styles of dress and adornment that tend to set people apart.

Robert Merton called people who believe in equality and put their beliefs into action....

unprejudiced nondiscriminators.

Affirmative Action means....

all of the above

Causes of prejudice and discrimination are ....

all of the above

Which of the following is an example of discrimination?

Landlord not leasing to minority groups.

The Holiwards are a group of refugees who recently moved into anew country. Their customs and language differed from the residents of their new country, but they soon gained employment and good housing. The Holiwards are and example of _____ group

Ethnic

According to Robert Merton's analysis of prejudice and discrimination, the KKK is

prejudiced discriminators.

Life chances is the likelihood of a good long successful life in society.

False

According to Alex Thio, the working class constitutes the largest class in the US and is more diverse in occupation than the upper-middle class.

False

The traditional study stratification focuses on women only.

False

Sociologist have long defined social class as a category of people who have about the same amount of income power and prestige.

True

According to feminists, women as a group are more vulnerable than men to poverty because of the sexist nature of society.

True

As the world's leading democratic society, the United States has the most equal distribution of income.

False.

When people move from one country to another, their racial charcteristics such as skin color and facial features do not change. But their racial identification may change.

True

Segregation only includes social separation of the dominant and minority groups.

False

Prejudice and discrimination are far from unique to the United States.

True

Genocide is the wholesale killing of members of specific racial or ethnic groups.

True

As a biological concept ______ refers to a large category of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics.

Race

An ______ is a collection of people like the Jews or the Irish who share a distinctive cultural heritage.

Ethnic Group

______ is a negative feeling, opinion, or attitude toward members of a certain group that is often based on preconceived views.

Prejudice

Affirmative action policies that are designed to pressure some organizations to hire or promote minorities are aimed at reducing ______ discrimination.

instituntionaled

_________ is an unfavorable action or behavior against individuals that is taken because they are members of a certain group.

Discrimination

__________involves moving up and down the status ladder.

vertical mobility

A ____________ is a change in an individuals social standing.

Individual/Intragenerational Mobility

_____________is the system in which some people get more or less rewards than others.

Social stratification

A ______________________ is a racil or ethnic group that is subjected to prejudice and discrimination.

minority group

____________is a policy that requires employers and academic institutions to make special efforts to recruit qualified minorities for jobs promotions and educational opportunities.

Affirmative Action

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