Biology Midterm

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Which one of the following is NOT a trace element in the human body?

Carbon

The four most common elements in living organisms are

C,H,O,N

A compound

Contains two or more elements in a fixed ratio

What is the difference between covalent and ionic bonding?

In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons; in an ionic bond, one partner transfers electrons to the other.

________ are weak bonds that bridges between molecules.

Hydrogen bonds

The ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules is critical to

The movement of water from the roots of a tree to its leaves; the abliity of certain insects to walk on the surface of water; evaporative cooling of skin surfaces; (all these factors)

Water molecules stick to other water molecules because

Hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.

A solution with a pH of 7 is

Neutral

A solution with a pH of 1 is

Strongly acidic

Characteristics of carbon that contribute to its ability to form an immense diversity of organic molecules include its

Ability to bond with up o four other atoms; tendency to form covalent bonds; ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or unbranched "carbon skeletons"; (all choices are correct)

Organic compounds

always contain carbon and hydrogen and are syntehsized by cells

Which one of the following is an amino group?

-NH2

Monosaccharides can be joined together by a process called dehydration synthesis. Which of the following statements is/are true of this process?

Covalent bonds are formed between the monomers; one monomer loses a hydrogen atom, and the other loses a hydroxyl group; H2O is formed as the monomers are joined; (all the choices are correct)

*The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of

CH2O

A molecule with the formula C55H110O55 is probably a(n)

Polysaccharide

Sucrose is formed

From two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis

Which one of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?

Cellulose, starch, and glycogen

Cellulose differs from starch in that

Most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested

Foods that are high in fiber are most likely derived from

Plants

The storage from carbohydrates in animals is _________ and in plants is _________

Glycogen...starch

Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be

Unsaturated

Proteins differ from one another because

The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protien to protein

Glucose molecules are to starch as ________ are to protiens

Amino acids

Peptide bonds

Link amino acids together

The _______ structure of a protein consists of a chain of amino acids assembeled in a specific order

Primary

The tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to

The overall three-dimensional structure

DNA differs from RNA because DNA

Contains thymine in place of uracil

Genetic information is encoded in the

Sequence of nucleotides in DNA

The glucose produced by a plant is used to make the carbohydrate, proteins, fats, and other nucleic acids of the plant. Which statement is true about the process of converting sugars into other molecules?

Glucose contains all of the elements needed to produce the carbohydrates and fats, but other elements must come from the soil if the plant is to produce proteins and nucleic acids.

Many names for sugars end in the suffix

-ose

Can be broken down into sub units that are exactly identical to each other

Carbohydrate

Contains nitrogen; macromolecule is found to have a gloular shape

Protein

Not soluable in water

Lipid

Contains nitrogen

Nucleic Acid

Esential elements and their role in plants, animals and prokaryotes

Phosphorus: atp release storage of energy also a part of DNA
Iron: needed for the production of hemoglobin and oxygen and other proteins, carries hemoglobin in blood
Sulfur: found in amino acids building blocks of protein some prokaryotes cells witout nucelir can use sulfar containing compounds to make their food.
Sodium: important in cell membrane functioning and also used in sending nerve impulses
Calcium: bone strength, helps enzymes work speed to chem. rxns to make food

Cohesive Properites

cohesion is an attraction between moelcules of that are of the same type (digest themselves), water has cohesion because of hydrogen bonds this can be shown through surface tension, water moving up a plant, and it explains waters thermal properties.

Thermal Properties

high specific heat and high heat of melting and evaporation, waters high specific heat helps stablize temperatures because water resists temperature change, and it allows cooling and heating. Waters specific heat is high because it has a resistance to change temperature.

specific heat

amount of energy needed to change the temp.

heat of vaporization

amount of energy to go from a liquid to a gas

Solvent Properties

Water dissolves polar molecules, Positive side of water attracts to negative side of polar molecule and vice versa, It also dissolves ionic compounds

Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium

Sweat-- for water a as a coolant, Heat from skin is used to evaporate the water on skin,High heat of vaporization removes a lot of heat with a small amount of water,Because it dissolves so much, water is a great transport medium AND medium for chemical reactions!
Blood
Cytoplasm
Nucleoplasm

std dev

State that the term standard deviation is used to summarize the spread of values
around a mean, and that 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of
the mean

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