APES Ch. 4 and 5

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What property of water is due to hydrogen bonds?

cohesion, temperature change resistance, floating ice, ability to hold in solution or dissolve many other vital chemicals for life

___ is defined as the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

Mass number

___ are composed of amino acids.


___ are the primary water-insoluble components of cell membranes.

plasma membranes

Finger nails, hair, and enzymes are classified as____.


Organisms with a nucleus are called ___ organisms.


Which of the following describes a property of water?

cohesion, hydrogen bond, resistance to temperature change

Bacteria use ___ to break down hydrocarbons during bioremediation, just as we use them to digest food.


Which of the following (starch, chitin, DNA, glucose, cellulose) is not a macromolecule?


River water held behind a dam is best described as a form of ____.

non-soluble compounds

Early Earth (4.5 billion years ago) ___.

severe volcanic and tectonic activity, intense ultraviolet energy from sun, no life, no oxygen until photosynthesis

The ___ hypothesis, proposed in the 1930s, says that carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen dissolved in Earth's water formed simple amino acids and eventually complex organic compounds that self-replicated.


The ___ hypothesis, proposed in the 1970s and 1980s by Jack Corliss and others, suggests that life on Earth originated in the deep sea where sulfur was abundant.


Coal, oil, and natural gas are ___.

types of fossil fuels

Consider the following processes: respiration, chemosynthesis, combustion, fermentation, polymerization, and photosynthesis. How many of these result in the release of oxygen into the atmosphere?

only photosynthesis

When you burn a log in your fireplace you are converting ____.

potential energy to kinetic energy

What is the equation for aerobic cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

What is the equation for chemosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6H20 + 3H2S --> C6H12O6 + 3HS SO4

Over many years, the population of finches on an island ___.

May have mutations that make them more able to survive, become new species through allopatric speciation.

The hawks on an island have always eaten insects, lizards, and mammals, but they find the brightest yellow finches to be easy prey as well. Over many years, the population of finches on the island ___.

may develop a mutation that protects it from predation/dying out, may be victims of flow artificial selection.

Most extinction is ___.

Natural and happens gradually, one species at a time.

The two processes that determine the world's current biodiversity are ___.

speciation and extinction

Endemic species ____

are species that occur nowhere else on earth and have relatively high risk of extinction

The functional role of a species in its community is its ____.


High population density can ____

make it easier for organisms to group together and find mates, lead to conflict and competition

Population distribution describes ____

the spatial arrangements of organisms

Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of a population, generally ____

predict demographic patterns in the future of the population

Unregulated populations tend to increase by ____.

exponential growth

The carrying capacity is the

max population size an environment can sustain

Density-dependent factors ___

influence of the factors can vary with changing conditions

Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards from one another. Over a long period of time, ____.

allopatric speciation might occur, create two different species that each run their own genetic mutating DNA

Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction?

endemic species, specialist species

A small moth pollinates native trees when they bloom in April. Some of the moths emerge in early March and discover a different blooming shrub to use as a resource. This is an example of what, over time, could be ____.

Habitat selection, DNA mutation

One example of artificial selection is ____


In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ____

to be faster, ID poison, blend in more, be smaller, have a largely diverse diet

A number of coyotes move into an area and begin to eat a population of small harvest mice. After several years, the harvest mice are much speedier runners than before the coyotes came. This is an example of ____

a genetic/biological mutation due to natural selection

Which of the following would represent a clumped population dispersion pattern?


An example of a density-independent factor would be _____

temperature changes, only change that is not direction caused or is resulted direction by the population density

A coyote, which can alter its food intake to match seasonal abundance of plants, fruits, or small animals, is considered to be ____


A species has evolved an asexual mode of reproduction by having offspring develop from unfertilized eggs. Which of the following will be true of this species' response to natural selection?

less mutation, won't adapt through natural selection

What made the Kaibab Plateau so ideal for attempting to control and improve the deer population?

it was isolated

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