The science that deals with the form and structure of an organism.
The study of the function of the body and the functions of all its parts.
directional term meaning toward the head.
directional term meaning toward the head.
an imaginary plane diving the body into head and tail segments
an imaginary plane dividing the body into upper and lower (dorsal and ventral) segments.
an imaginary plane passing through the body dividing it into equal left and right halves.
directional term meaning toward or beyond the backbone or vertebral column.
directional term meaning away from the vertebral column.
antonym to superficial
a person lying on his belly is lying in the ___ position.
a horse lying on its back is in this position.
In mammals, only ____ are without nucleus.
cellular organelle which functions in the collection of fluid.
cellular organelle which produces hormones, lipids, enzymes, and mucus.
cell division for somatic cells.
flat, plate-like cells found where a smooth surface is required (ex. coverings of viscera).
epithelial cells found in some ducts of glands and in passageways in kidneys.
epithelium that lines the urinary bladder.
when boiled, it yields gelatin.
commonly called "gristle"
aka spongy bone
neutrophils, acidophils, basophils
three types of granulocytes (types of wbc's):
small irregularly-shaped particles associated with clotting of blood.
also called involuntary visceral or unstriated muscle.
dense or cortical bone
refers to either extremity of a long bone
cylindrical shaft of a long bone
widest part of an immature bone.
fibrous membrane that lines the marrow cavity
circumscribed hole in a bone
e.g. of a sesamoid bone
e.g. of a pneumatic bone
2nd vertebral vertebrae
where is the dens located
vertebrae in the rump region.
splint bones in a horse
also called the coffin bone
also called the distal sesamoid bone
illium, ischium, pubis
the three bones uniting at the acetabulum
makes up the hooks
makes up the pins
largest foramen in the body
calcaneus bone projects upwards and backward to form this area
in a cow or a horse corresponds to a human knee
study of articulations between bones
joints between bones of the skull
place where tooth fits into jaw
i.e. of a gomphosis joint
mandibular or pelic
i.e. of a symphysis joint
inelastic connective tissue bands extending from bone to bone.
movement of an extremity away from the median plane.
movement in a sagittal plane that tends to decrease the angle between segments making up a joint.
dwarf occurs if cartilage changes to bone completely and too quickly in life.
junctions of the diaphysis and epiphysis
fracture in which one side of the bone is broken or splintered and the other side only bent.
fracture in which a number of small fragments are formed due to the bone being splintered or crushed.
study of muscles.
also called involuntary or unstriated muscles.
also called voluntary of skeletal muscle.
also called involuntary striated muscle.
this muscle makes up the meat or flesh of domestic animals.
a cell membrane sheath covering muscle cells.
fat interspersed between muscle bundles.
relaxed muscle has a very (high,low) ____ level of Ca+2
for a muscle to remain in the relaxed state, it must also contain a relatively high concentration of ______.
neurotransimitter needed for muscle contraction.
color of muscle which performs sustained and continuous work.
are flat sheets of tendon found covering the muscles of the loin.
least movable attachment of muscle to bone.
is a muscle located on the side of the limb toward which the joint bends in decreasing the angle between the segments.
muscles that tend to pull a limb toward the median plane.
muscle that surrounds an opening.
muscles that are responsible for movement of the skin (general term).
resistance for muscle to stretch
type of smooth muscle found in the iris and ciliary body of the eye.
hormone which inhibits peristalsis
also called high mountain disease
purkinje network (fibers)
modified muscles fibers confined to ventricles of mammalian hearts.
type of muscle contraction where muscle operates against an immovable resistance.
is the muscle antagonistic to the biceps brachii.
also called milk teeth
true teeth, constantly growing teeth, constantly erupting teeth.
_________,_____________,______ are three types of teeth according to their manner of growth.
tearing of seizing teeth
grinding or shearing teeth
part of tooth which protrudes above the gum line.
part of tooth embedded in the tooth socket
hardest tissue in the body
forms the roof of the mouth
is a common passage for food and air
In the act of swallowing the _______ prevents food or saliva from going down the ________.
protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm.
cardias, fundus, pylorus
the three sections of the simple stomach, in order (cranial to caudal):
rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
what are the four parts to the ruminant stomach in order:
also called the paunch
also called the true stomach.
also called the manypiles
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
what are the 3 sections of the small intestines (in order):
enzyme secreted by the crypts of Lieberkuhn which activates the pancreatic secretion of trypsinogen and amylase.
secreted by Brunner's glands in the small intestines to help protet its tissues from gastric acid.
also called the blind sac.
the the dog, the 1st part of the large intestines from the blind sac.
location of bile production
location of bile storage in all domestic animals other than the horse.
fecal trysin determination
used to help diagnose a diseased pancreas (fecal laboratory test).
peritoneum; visceral peritoneum
______ lining of the abdominal cavity (specific) as opposed to the serosa lining that covers the organs in the abdominal cavity ______.
fingerlike projections which protrude into the lumen of the intestines
animals that only eat meat or flesh
plants make CHO through process called _______
glucose, fructose, galactose
_______,_________,____________ are three examples of a monosaccharide.
sucrose and maltose
_____ and _____ are examples of a disaccharide
is also called animal starch
is also called plant starch
biological value (BV)
measures the relationship of protein retention to protein absorption
Na, Cl, and K
_____, ______, _____ are the three electrolytes needed for maintaining fluid balance in the body.
are four fat soluble vitamins
a starch splitting enzyme found in the saliva of the dog and pig.
is one of the enzymes produced by the acinar cells
the parietal cells secrete _____, a protein that serves as a carrier for the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12.
rhythmic waves down the GIT propels food at a set rate
vomiting center of the body (control)
where absorption of most nutrients (in the simple stomach animal) takes place (be specific).
NH3 and urea
an example of NPN.
consists of two or more bulging lips on the right wall of the reticulum which is used to bypass liquids from the ruminoreticulum.
while under anesthesia, this tube is placed into an animal's "windpipe"
also called external nares
Each nasal passage is divided by two ____ bones into three channels or _____.
frontal, lacrimal, maxillary, palatine, sphenoidal
____ and ____ are two of the five sinuses found in farm animals
is a common passageway for food and air.
is another name for eustachian tubes
the thyroid cartilage in humans make up the _____.
is a disorder caused by a paralysis of the muscles that abduct the arytenoid cartilages in horses
is the cartilage that controls the pitch of the voice
also called the windpipe or air tube
the windpipe divides into two chief _____ one for each lung.
the smallest subdivisions of the air passages in the lungs.
in most farm animals, there are ___ lobes to the lung.
is a condition where air gained entrance into the pleural cavity.
is a lipoprotein complex produced by alveolar epithelial cells to reduce surface tension of the fluid lining the small air sacs of the lungs.
the junction of the two pleura sacs near the midline of the thorax forming a double layer.
pleura that lines the thorax.
pleura that covers the lungs
pleura that covers the heart
dome-shaped muscolomembranous partition of the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavities.
respiration- where oxygen from the blood is diffused to the tissues for cellular oxidation and the resulting carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood.
small hair like structures which protect the lungs from damage by moving small particles back up the windpipe.
measures the number of breath/minute
is the air that remains in the airways after maximal forced expiration, and so cannot be removed.
is the volume of air moving in and out during normal quiet breathing
total lung capacity
is the sum of vial capacity plus the residual volume.
is the maximal volume that can be inspired after maximals expiration.
the serous sac that partially surrounds the heart
visceral pericardium (aka epicardium)
the outer serous covering of the heart
thick muscular layer of the heart
pulmonary artery or right atrium
receives unoxygenated blood (part of heart)
also called the mitral valve
also called the right A-V valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
located at the junction of pulmonary artery and right ventricle.
large blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from the lower extremities and abdominal region.
smallest blood vessels allowing only a single blood cell to pass at a time
pulmonary semilunar valve
valve prevents backflow of blood into right ventricle
largest artery in the body
superficial veins along the neck of all animals
hepatic portal system
blood drained from the stomach, spleen, pancreas and intestines is filtered through this area before it enters the general circulation.
connects the right and left atria in the fetus.
connects the pulmonary artery and aorta in the fetus.
term meaning to ingest (as in bacteria).
system that eats up fragile, wprn-out RBCs that break up in passing thru the spleen.
Ig stands for ____
phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart is relaxed just prior to and during the filling of the chamber.
narrowing of vessel caused by a thickening or presence of scar tissue.
sino-atrial node (pacemaker)
hearbeat originates in the ____ of the heart.
modified cardiac muscle fibers which carry the contraction impulses in the ventricles.
shock caused by histamine release in reaction to allergic response.
immature RBSs with nuclei.
jaundice is caused by an excess amount of this accumulating in the vascular system.
found in the red blood cell and responsible for its ability to transport oxygen.
also called prussic acid poisoning.
cattle grazing highly fertilized rank plant growth can develp ____ poisoning.
= breakdown of RBCs
also called red water
disorder meaning without blood
packed cell volume (PCV)
also called hematocrit value.
packed cell volume (PCV)
measures the % (by volume) of whole blood that is constituted by red blood cells.
a type of WBC used in the first line of defense against infection by engulfing the bacteria or necrotic tissue.
type of WBC that increases in number with infection of parasites.
largest of WBCs
WBC that responds to antigens by forming antibodies that circulate in the blood.
abnormally low number of WBCs characteristic of viral infection.
progressive proliferation of abnormal WBCs found in blood producing tissues and the blood itself.
the most abundant protein in plasma.
is a beta-1- globulin essential in the clotting mechanism.
a plasma protein synthesized when cells are stimulated by antigens thus providing antibodies to neutralize them or help break them down.
supernatant yellow fluid expressed when blood blots in a test tube.
when too much CO2 is removed from the blood this condition results.
when too much CO2 is in the blood this condition results.
these structures are scattered along the course of lymphatic vessels which serve as filters and act as one of the first body defenses against infection.
a decrease below normal levels of O2 in air, blood, or tissue.
a substance produced by the kidney which stimulates the production of RBCs from the bone marrow.
-term meaning just outside the peritoneal cavity
the outer zone of an organ (i.e. kidney)
the central area of the kidney where the urinary ducts come together to form the ureters.
tube that empties the urinary bladder.
functional unit of the kidney
rich capillary bed within Bowman's capsule
also called renal corpuscle
proximal convoluted tubule
longest and most winding portion of the nephron which reabsorbs most of the constituents of the glomerular filtrate.
U-shaped tubule that contains the most concentrated fluid in the nephron
mechanism occurs in this U-shaped tubule because fluid moves in opposite directions in the reabsorption of water.
hormone produces in the hypothalamus which acts on the collecting ducts increasing the reabsorption of water.
hormone produced in the adrenal cortex which increases the reabsorption of sodian ions in the tubules.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
most commonly used index of renal function
uric acid crystals
principle excretory product in the avain species.
depolarization of the membrane of a nerve cell occurs by the rapid influx of ______
epinephrine & norepinephrine
ex. of a catecholamine
supporting neural tissue involved in the formation of the myelin sheath and blood-brain barrier
fluid which acts as a shock absorber for the brain.
the membrane closest to the gray matter in the brain.
most superficial membrane
fat-filled space between the periosteum of the vertebral canal and the most superficial membrane surrounding spinal cord.
are drugs that stimulate the release of norepinephrine from neurovesicles.
functional layer of the ovary (where the follicles and hormones are produced).
a regressing follicle
means "white body" (on the ovary)
funnel-shaped end of oviducts
exact location of fertilization
muscular part of the uterus
outer layer of uterine tissue
inner layer of uterine tissue
uterine type found in mare
uterine type found in a rat
anatomical part of reproductive tract that protects the uterus from infection and passage of foreign material.
homologue to penis in the female.
homologous to scrotum in the female
age of mare when she reaches puberty
support structure that suspends the ovaries, oviducts, uterus and blood vessels.
the fetal membrane that encloses the embryo and the other fetal membranes.
average length of estrous cycle in cow.
average length of estrous cycle in a bitch.
llama and bitch
pseudopregnancy is common in the rabbit, ____, _____.
zygote (or fertilization)
union of ovum and spermatozoa
implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall.
developement of fetal membranes.
average gestation period of a bitch.
average gestation period of a queen.
average gestation period of a cow
average gestation period of a mare
average gestation period of sow.
average gestation period of an ewe.
average gestation period of an elephant.
bovine trophoblastic protein
the particular protein in cattle that tells the cow not to reject the fetus and not to start the cycle all over again.
endocrine gland at the base of the brain that secretes controlling hormones.
milk let-down hormone
pituitary hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis.
pituitary hormone that stimulates ovulation
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
primate hormone that LH-like activity.
equine hormone with FSH-like activity
causes mammary duct growth
ovarian hormone that stimulates calcium uptake by the bones
hormone that maintains pregnancy
produced by the Sertoli cells and inhibits FSH.
cells that produce androgens in the testes.
main hormone of thyroid gland involved with metabolic rate.
anti-inflammatory hormone of adrenal gland.
adrenal hormone involved with water and mineral balance.
epinphrine & norepinephrine
are two catecholamines.
insulin and glucagon
are two pancreatic hormones.
disease whose symptoms include excess sugar in the blood.
after fertilization in the cow before implantation occurs.
accurate methods of pregnancy diagnosis in dogs during the last trimester
method of pregnancy diagnosis in mares after 56 days to prove fetus is alive.
hormonal assays in equine checks for the hormone during pregnancy diagnosis
fetus releases this hormone which triggers parturition
allanto choirionic sac
also called the water bag
each testis lies within an extension of the _____ which passes thru the abdominal wall.
made up of blood vessels and nerves that reach the testis thru the inguinal canal
exact site of spermatogenesis
shortly after birth
age of canine testes descent
prostate, cowpers, seminal vesicles
3 male accessory sex glands:
S-curce in the penis of the bull and ram
surrounds and protects the penis.