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dispersion, dipole- dipole, hydrogen bonding

order the intermolecular forces from weakest to strongest:

A

which of the following is not part of the kinetic-molecular theory?
(a) atoms are neither created nor destroyed by ordinary chemical reactions
(b) attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules are negligible
(c) gases consist of molecules in continuous, random motion
(d) collisions between gas molecules do not result in the loss of energy

A

which statement regarding water is true?
(A) energy is required in order to break down the crystal lattice of ice to a liquid
(B) hydrogen bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
(C) liquid water is less dense than solid water
(D)only covalent bonds are broken when ice melts

C

in which of the following groups of substances would dispersion forces be the only significant force of attraction:
I--Cl2 II--HF III--H20 IV--CCl4 V--KNO2
(A) I, III, V
(B) I, II, IV
(C) I, IV
(D) II, V

B

a certain solid substance that is brittle, has a high melting point, and it nonconducting unless melted is most likely to be:
(A) I2
(B) NaCl
(C) CO2
(D) Cu

B

which of the fallowing statements is false?
(A) diamond is a covalent crystal
(B) solid ionic crystal are good electrical conductors
(C) molecular crystals are fairly soft
(D) metallic crystals are usually good electrical conductors

a hydrogen from one molecule and an oxygen from the other molecule

when a water molecule forms a hydrogen bond with another water molecule, which atoms are involved in the interaction?

a liquid becomes a gas

the process of evaporation happens when what occurs?

condensation

__ must exist in equilibrium with the evaporation process when a measurement of vapor pressure is made

D

which of the following is paired incorrectly?
(A) crystalline solids-- highly regular arrangement of their components
(B) amorphous solids-- considerable disorder in their structures
(C) unit cell-- the smallest repeating unit in a lattice
(D) molecular solids-- good conductors of heat

B

of the following substances, only __ has hydrogen bonding as its strongest intermolecular force:
(A) CH3CH2Cl
(B) NH3
(C) H2S
(D) CH4

crystalline solids

__ have highly ordered structures.

dipole-dipole attraction

hydrogen bonding is a special case of __

surface tension

__ is the energy required to expand the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount of area.

capillary action

what does not affect the viscosity of a liquid?

temperatures<3500K and pressures> 10fifth atm

under what conditions is diamond most likely to form?

liquid carbon only

in what form or forms does carbon exist at 6000K and 10fifth atm?

freezing

Of the following, __ is an exothermic process
(A) melting
(B) subliming
(C) freezing
(D) boiling

strong enough to hold molecules relatively close together but NOT strong enough to keep molecules from moving past each other

in liquids, the attractive intermolecular forces are__

viscosity

__ increases as temperature decreases, increases as molecular weight increases, and increases as intermolecular forces increase

a long-range repeating pattern of atoms, molecules, or ions

crystalline solids differ from amorphous solids in that crystalline solids have__

metallic

a solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and poor electrical conduction. this is a __ solid

extreme brittleness

metallic solids do NOT exhibit __

the cohesive force is greater than the adhesive force

when the liquid metal mercury is placed in a small tube, the meniscus actually curves upward just the opposite of water. the reason for this is that...

triple point

what is defined as the combination of pressure and temperature at which all three states of matter can coexist as equilibrium?

less than

the surface tension of water is great than the surface tension of cooking oil because the unattractive forces between the molecules of cooking oil is __ the attractive forces between the molecules of water

viscosity

several liquids are compared by adding them to series of 50ml graduated cylinders, then dropping a steel ball of uniform size and mass into each. the time required for the ball to reach the bottom of the cylinder is noted. this is a method used a compare the differences in a property of liquids known as __

adhesive forces

what is responsible for capillary action?

dispersion forces

elemental iodine (I2) is a solid at room temperature. what is the major attractive force that exists among different I2 molecules in the solid?

A

which of the follow statements regarding water are true?
(A) hydrogen bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
(B) only covalent bonds are broken when ice melts
(C) only hydrogen-bonds are broken when ice melts
(D) liquid water is less dense than solid water

suspension

a __ is a mixture containing particles that settle out if left undisturbed

colloid

milk is an example of a __

water

__ is the most common solvent among liquid solutions

solute

a dilute solutions contains small amounts of __

suspension

muddy water from a creek after a heavy rain is an example of a __

Brownian motion

the erratic movement of colloid particles is called __

solvation

the process of solute particles being surrounded by solvent particles is known as

life dissolves like

the phrase "__" refers to the fact that polar solvents dissolve polar solutes and non polar solvents dissolves on non polar solutes

c

which of the collowing should be immiscible with benzene (C6H6)?
(A) C6H14
(B) Br2
(C) CH3CH2OH
(D)C3H8

a

which of the following is most soluble in water?
(A) CH3OH
(B) CH3CH2OH
(C) CH3CH2CH2OH
(D)CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

supersaturated

a solution with a concentration higher than the solubility is __

gases

pressure will increase solubility of __ in liquids

decreases

as temperature increases, the solubility of a gas in water __

the mole fraction of 0.1

in a 0.1 molar solution of NaCl in water, what will be the closest to 0.1?

mass of solvent, total volume of solution, chemical formula of solute

to express a solution concentration in molarity, you need to know:

decreases, increases, decreases, increases

when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, the solution vapor pressure __, the boiling point __, the freezing point __, and the osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane __.

water will flow from the cucumber to the solution

a cucumber is placed in a concentrated salt solution. what will most likely happen?

will have decreased

consider pure water separated from an aqueous sugar solution by a semipermeable membrane, which allows water to pass freely but not sugar. After some time has passed, the concentration of sugar solution:

supersaturated

__ solutions are very unstable

endpoint

the point in a titration at which the indicator changes is called the __

5

how many valence electrons does a phosphorus atom have?

B

below are some elements with their number of valence electrons. which is incorrect?
(A) Be---2
(B) Br---5
(C) Li--- 1
(D) Al---3
(E) C---4

c

an atom of which element below has the most unpaired electrons?
(A) Ba
(B) Na
(C) P
(D) F
(E) O

d

how many lone pairs of electrons are in the outer shell of the central nitrogen atom of NH3?
(A) 4
(B) 3
(C) 2
(D) 1
(E) 0

b

the total number of lone pairs of electrons in the N2 molecule is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

d

the total number of valence electrons (available electrons) for C4H5Cl2FO molecule is
(A) 42
(B) 44
(C) 46
(D) 48
(E) 50

c

the only noble gas without eight valence electrons is
(A) Ar
(B) Ne
(C) He
(D) Kr
(E) All noble gases have eight valence electrons

c

How many electron domains does the central atom have in PCl3?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

a

how many electron domains does the central atom have in BeBr2?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

e

how many electron domains does the central atom have in XeF4?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

d

how many electron domains does the central atom have in XeF2?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

c

how many electron domains does the central atom have in H2O?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

b

How many electron domains does the central atom have in NO2-?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

e

what is the molecular geometry of PCl3?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

a

what is the molecular geometry of BeBr2?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

b

what is the molecular geometry of BBr3?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

a

what is the molecular geometry of AsF5?
(A) trigonal bipyramidal
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

d

what is the molecular geometry of PH4+?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

e

what is the molecular geometry of AsH3?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

d

what is the molecular geometry of CCl4?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

c

what is the molecular geometry of ClO2-?
(A) linear
(B) trigonal planar
(C) bent
(D) tetrahedral
(E) trigonal pyramidal

a

what is the molecular geometry of TeF6?
(A) octahedral
(B) square pyramidal
(C) square planar
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

e

what is the molecular geometry of XeF2?
(A) octahedral
(B) square pyramidal
(C) square planar
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

a

what is the molecular geometry of SiCl62-?
(A) octahedral
(B) square pyramidal
(C) square planar
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

b

what is the molecular geometry of SF4?
(A) octahedral
(B) seesaw
(C) t-shaped
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

c

what is the molecular geometry of ClF3?
(A) octahedral
(B) square pyramidal
(C) square planar
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

c

what is the molecular geometry of XeF4?
(A) octahedral
(B) square pyramidal
(C) square planar
(D) trigonal bipyramidal
(E) linear

b

what is the hybridization of the boron atom in BF3 molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

c

what is the hybridization of the nitrogen atom in NH3 molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

c

what is the hybridization of the sulfur atom in SO3 2- molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

e

what is the hybridization of the xenon atom in XeF4 molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

a

what is the hybridization of the carbon atom in CO2 molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

d

what is the hybridization of the I central atom in I3- molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

e

what is the hybridization of the sulfur atom in SF6 molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

c

what is the hybridization of the oxygen atom in H3O+ molecules?
(A) sp
(B) sp2
(C) sp3
(D) sp3d
(E) sp3d2

a

which of the following species has sp3d hybridization at the central atom?
(A) PF5
(B) NH3
(C) SF6
(D) HF
(E) CF4

e

which of the following species has sp3 hybridization at the central atom?
(A) PF5
(B) NH3
(C) SF6
(D) HF
(E) CF4

d

which of the following statements is not true regarding enthalpy?
(A) the change in enthalpy is positive for a process that absorbs heat
(B) enthalpy is a state function
(C) enthalpy is an extensive property
(D) the enthalpy of a system can be measured

specific heat

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degree C

d

of the following △Hf is not zero for
(A) O2 (g)
(B) C(graphic)
(C) N2 (g)
(D) F2 (s)

endothermic reaction

a __ requires added energy to proceed

standard state

the __ of an element is defined by the most stable form of the element under standard conditions

H

what is the symbol for enthalpy?

exothermic

a negative △H corresponds to an __ process

more than the energy required to break apart the reactants

in a combustion reaction, an exothermic reaction, the energy released as the products form is_

exothermic

a __ reaction releases heat to its surroundings

enthalpy change

the __ for a reaction is determined by subtracting the enthalpy of the reactants from the enthalpy of products

c

which of the following statements about bonds and energy is correct?
(A) bond breaking and bond formation both release energy
(B) bond breaking and bond formation both require energy
(C) bond breaking requires energy and bond formation releases energy
(D) bond breaking releases energy and bond formation requires energy

endothermic, positive

a chemical reaction that absorbs heat from the surroundings is said to be __ and has a __ value of △H at constant pressure

c

all of the following statements about enthalpy are true except
(A) the enthalpy of a substance depends on its temperature, physical state, and composition
(B) under constant pressure, the enthalpy change for a reaction is equal to the amount of heart absorbed or released
(C) there is generally a very large numerical difference between the energy and enthalpy of a substance
(D) enthalpy is represented by the capital letter H

joule

the SI unit of heat and energy is the __

d

which one of the following is an exothermic process?
(A) ice melting
(B) water evaporating
(C) boiling soup
(D) condensation of water vapor

Hess's law statement

if a reaction takes place in steps, the △H for the reaction will be the sum of △Hs for the individual steps

endothermic

endothermic or exothermic?
2h2o + 572 KJ --> 2h2 + o2

exothermic

endothermic or exothermic?
c3h8 + 5o2 --> 3co2 + 4h2o + 2043KJ

exothermic

endothermic or exothermic?
2s + 3o2 --> 2so3 △H= -791 KJ

endothermic

endothermic or exothermic?
c + h2o + 113KJ --> co + h2

exothermic

endothermic or exothermic?
2no + o2 --> 2no2 △H= -113 KJ

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