After his election southern states seceded from the Union, Believed that southern states had never left the union legally and fought south until they surrendered. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation. First Republican President
to formally break away from
The War between the Confederate States of America (South) (1861-1865) and the (Northern) United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery.
Political party formed to oppose extending slavery in the territories
Lincoln's 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Organization created at end of Civil War that aided southerners (mainly former slaves) with education, finding food, shelter and employment.
citizenship to "all persons born naturalized in the U.S." and promised "equal protection of the laws."
states that no one can be kept from voting because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South; received a small plot of land, seed, fertilizer, tools from the landlord who decided what and how much should be planted; landlord usually took half of the harvest.
taxes that required voters to pay a fee everytime they voted, since freedmen could barely afford these, they didn't vote abolished by 24th amendment
Tests of a voter's ability to read and write, which were often used to keep recent immigrants and blacks from voting.
Provided that an individual could qualify to vote, if his grandparent could have voted (excluded former slaves and descendants).
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case (1896) Legalized segregation under the Constitution with the concept of "separate but equal."
separation based on race
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Completed in 1869, it linked the nation from the East Coast to California's railroad, revolutionizing transportation in the west
farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops
businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
exclusive control of a product or service that makes it possible to control prices
People who'd built fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, and bribing officials
American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
John D. Rockefeller
had a monopoly with his company Standard Oil. He destroyed competition which was both ruthless and brilliant.
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
Sherman Anti-trust Act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
an organization of workers to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
The belief that the rich succeed because they are superior to the poor.
one of the most serious strikes in US history at Carnegie steel company, the violence made people oppose unions
well organized organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
Law aimed at "Americanizing" assimilating the Indian
the right to vote
a policy of favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
Also Known as the People's Party, they demanded unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, and immigration restrictions
the founder of Hull House, helped immigrants, urban poor
Photographer author about urban poor/ immigrants in the factories and tenements. His book: "How the Other Half Lives"
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan's famous speech that criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; wanted US to back money with silver, not gold
Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption, for social justice, general equality, and public safety: Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle", Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
direct election of senators
federal income tax.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Mexican American War
Manifest Destiny - Texas annexaton by US outraged Mexico.US sent troops to areas in dispute. At end US gained Texas, New Mexico, California, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Ended 1848
land won in Mexican American War. Texas, New Mexico, California, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
Annexation of Texas
Texas seceded from Mexico and declared independence in response to Mexican abolition of slavery. US adopts/annexes Texas because Southern states support Texas slavery. The North feared expansion of slavery and war with Mexico (see Mexican American War)
California Gold Rush
Migration of thousands of people to California (in 1849) after gold was discovered there.
Compromise of 1850
California was admitted as a free state, Fugitive Slave Act strengthened
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
a person who wanted to end slavery
Idea that states have the right to limit the power of the federal government
loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. Free-Soilers battled slavery supporters with violence.
The concept that a state's citizens should vote whether to be a slave state or free
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Dred Scott v Sanford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
allowed for faster processing of American grown cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, INCREASED use of slavery to grow cotton
people dedicated to preventing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, poor whites who could not compete economically with slavery system.
refusing to take sides in disagreements and wars between countries
1794 protest over tax on whiskey. Tested strength of new gov't under Washington's leadership
a tax on imports
Secretary of Treasury under George Washington. Helped to create financial plan for the United States. Leader of the Federalists.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Plan to make US financially healthy. US governments took over state government debts, created a national bank and raised tariffs to promote US industry
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. Jefferson opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This division helped start political parties
3rd president of the United States, leader of Anti-federalist, believed in strict construction of Constitution and limited government and responsible for Louisiana Purchase
the Constitution is the supreme (highest) law of the land
the purchase in 1803 of French lands in North America that doubled the size of the United States - benefitted farmers in Ohio River Valley. Jefferson needed to loosely interpret Constitution to justify purchase
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to ONLY do those things SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress had the power to charter the bank because federal laws have supremecy over state laws - Necessary and Proper
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
.As president he opposed the Bank of US, did not allow individual states to nullify federal laws, was responsible for the Indian Removal Act, the "Trail of Tears". Created Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Indian Removal Act
law passed in 1830 that forced many Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
the balance of power between the national and state governments
checks and balances
the ability of each branch of government to exercise control over the other branches
separation of powers
the division of basic government roles into branches in order to limit the power of the federal government
Document which outlines a framework for our government based upon popular sovereignty and representative democracy
to give something official approval
the law-making body of the government
the law-enforcing body of the government
the law-interpreting body of the government
a process the supreme court uses to review the laws and acts of other branches and the states to determine their constitutionality
the process of accusing a public official of wrong-doing
powers reserved only for the national government. includes the powers to coin money , declare war, establish an army and navy, regulate trade between states and foreign nations, and make laws necessary to carry out delegated powers
powers that are allowed both states and the federal government. includes the powers to enforce laws, establish courts, borrow money, protect the health and safety of the people, and collect taxes
powers held only by state governments includes powers to conduct elections, establish schools, regulate businesses, establish local governments, regulate marriage, and assume the powers not given to the national government or denied the states.
Bill of Rights
the first ten ammendments to the US constitution, added in 1791, to protect the rights of individual citizens and limit the right of the government. Added to satisfy the concerns of the Anti-federalists. .
Articles of Confederation
first government of the United States. Failed primarily because the federal government lacked the power to enforce laws, collect taxes, and regulate trade. States held most power
a legal order prohibiting people from being held in prison or jail without formal charges of a crime.
latin- " I forbid", to vote against - when the president refuses to sign or approve a bill
Enacted in 1787, one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system settling the western territories so they could eventually become states on an equal footing with the original 13 states
a violent uprising of about 1500 debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers - governments inability to control rebellion highlighted problems with Articles of Confederation
a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation, resulting in the constitution being drafted
a formal change to the Constitution which allows the document to adjust over time to changes in society
due process of law
principle in the 5th Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions against individuals
a supporter of the constitution
a person apposed to the ratification of the US constitution, and wanted a bill of rights to be added.
the three-fifths compromise
the constitutional convention's agreement to count the three fifth's of a state's slave population for purposes of representation in the census
the Great compromise
t Compromise in which the larger states were provided representation by population in the House of Representatives, and the smaller states were appeased by the equal representation in the Senate.
the "elastic clause"
Congress can make "all laws necessary and proper" to carry out their constitutional powers.
the commander of the continental army, the first president of the US, and one of the members of the committee that drafted the US constitution, considered the founder of our nation.
necessary and proper clause
Part of the Elastic Clause/Implied Powers. Used to increase national government powers.
the electoral college
the method we use to elect the president of the US, 538 votes available and 270 needed to win. if there is a tie, then the top three candidates are voted on by the house of representatives. the system was created because the founding fathers didn't trust the common man to choose the leader.
the highest federal court in the United States
Marbury v. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
latin: you have the body. protects against meaningless imprisonment of people, protects citizens.
Advisors to the president. the original: secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general. now includes 18 members, newest is homeland security.
commander in chief, chief diplomat, chief of state, chief legislator, chief of law enforcement, chief guardian of the economy
exclusive senate powers
they have the sole power to try all impeachments, advise president to make treaties and appoint ambassadors.
powers of congress
collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce with other nations, coin money, declare war, control armed forces, make necessary laws (elastic clause)
principles of the constitution
popular sovereignty, republicanism, federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances, limited government, individual rights.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court - appointed in 1801, created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many decisions that expanded the power of the federal government and the Supreme Court
The speech was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action
a group of individuals with common concerns who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
first written form of self-government in English coloies
Virginia House of Burgesses
the form of self-government in English colonies
The western geographical boundary of the colonies before 1763
The western geographical boundary of the colonies after 1763
The colonial region that had the most slaves - associated with warm climate, long-growing season
The colonial region whose economy depended on fishing and trade, with small towns and limited self-gov't
A European intellectual movement that stressed the use of human reason. Stated that people had natural rights and that government should be by consent of the governed
a hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
an economic theory that believe the colonies should benefit the mother country. Limits colonial trade and manufacturing
Declaration of Independence
the document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
Social Contract Theory
Government by consent of the governed
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Co-founded the 1848 Women's Rights Convention held in Seneca Falls, New York and wrote "Declaration of Sentiments" stating "all people are created equal"
Seneca Falls Convention
1848, first Women's Rights Convention
author of "The Jungle" exposed horrors of meat packing industry
President known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet
28th president known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification)
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
controls America's money supply, by controlling the interest rates of banks, also america's central bank
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
buying on margin
Buying stocks with loans from brokers
a sudden large decline of business or the prices of stocks (especially one that causes additional failures)
1929 until start of WW2 massive unemployment and economic despair when the banks filed, savings were wiped out, and the stock market crashed
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
democrat who became United States president in 1933; his program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression became known as the "New Deal" and he remained president through WW II
term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression
Carried out through Executive Order 9066, which took many Japanese families away from their homes and into internment camp. Motivated by racism after Pearl Harbor bombing
The Japanese launched a surprise air attack, destroying many planes and ships and killing thousands of men. This lead the U.S. to enter the war
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
GI Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
two periods of time, in the 1920s and 1950s, in which Americans feared the growth of communism. These suspicions led to tests of the civil liberties of people under the Constitution.
Sacco and Vanzetti
two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs
president who pledged aid to countries who took stances against communism in 1957, decided to involve america in war
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
President during Cuban Missile Crisis, started Peace Corps
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
President established foreign policy of detente, ended Vietnam War, forced to resign from office because of Watergate scandal
President who escalated Vietnam War, signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. War on Poverty, medicare and Medicaid.
President 1976-80. known for Iran Hostage Crisis, had no national experience, left office on a bad note, he gave back Panama Canal after the 99 year lease ended. in the Camp David accords of 78 gets 1st Arab nation to recognize Israel
us president contributed with ending the cold war; built up the us military
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Policy first advocated by the United States in 1899 to allow for open and free trading rights in China for all nations.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China associated with President Nixon
gave women the right to vote
Miranda v. Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Mapp v. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Gideon v. Wainright
under the 6th amendment, poor defendants must be provided with a lawyer
Schenck v. US
Can limit free speech when there is a "clear and present danger"
Tinker v. Des Moine
This court case said that students/teachers keep 1st Amendment rights in schools as long as it's not disruptive
New Jersey v. TLO
students may be searched without a warrant if there is "reasonable ground" for doing so.
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools
Roe v. Wade
US v. Nixon
president not above the law. Nixon forced to turn over Watergate tapes
New York Times v. US
Government cannot restrict free speech (prior restraint) unless national security would be hurt
lowered voting age to 18
Bush v. Gore
Supreme Court declared that Florida vote recount violated equal protection clause; ended Gore's challenge to 2000 election results. Power of judicial review (effectively decided 2000 election).
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized mercantilism and monarchy and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain