Aurora University: Health Assessment Final Exam-Chap 24 & 25

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Cremaster muscle:

Controls the size of the scrotum by responding to ambient temperature.

Rugae:

Thin skin lying in folds that make up the scrotal wall.

Epididymis:

This caps the testis and is the main storage site of sperm.

Vas Deferens:

A muscular duct that transports sperm from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles.

Spermatic Cord:

Arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerves and the Vas deferens which make up a pair of tubular structures in the male reproductive system that support the testes in the scrotum.

Inguinal Area:

aka-groin, it the juncture of the lower abdominal wall and the thigh.

Inguinal Ligament:

A band of fibrous tissue that runs from the hip to the pubic bone in the groin. Specifically it attaches from the pubic tubercle on the pubic bone to the anterior superior iliac crest (on the pelvis).

Femoral Canal:

Contains efferent lymphatic vessels and a lymph node embedded in a small amount of areolar tissue. It is conical in shape and is about 2 cm long.

Efferent:

conveying or conducting away from an organ or part
(opposed to afferent); an efferent part, as a nerve or blood vessel.

Enlargement of testes:

Is the first sign of puberty in males.

Dysuria:

Difficult or painful urination.

True incontinence:

Loss of urine without warning.

Urgency incontinence:

Urge incontinence is the strong, sudden need to urinate due to bladder spasms or contractions.

Stress Incontinence:

Loss of urine with physical strain due to weakness of sphincters.

Nocturnal enuresis:

Involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.

Phimosis (phi·mo·sis):

Tightness or constriction of the orifice of the foreskin arising either congenitally or postnatally and preventing retraction of the foreskin over the glans

Paraphimosis (para·phi·mo·sis):

A condition in which the foreskin is retracted behind the glans penis and cannot be brought back to its original position

Hypospadias:

An abnormality of the penis in which the urethra opens on the underside (ventral side).

Epispadias:

A congenital defect in which the urethra opens upon the upper (dorsal) surface of the penis

Scrotal swelling:

This may be caused by heart failure, renal failue or local inflammation.

Cryptorchidism:

A condition in which one or both testes fail to descend normally

Hernia:

Usually a sac formed by the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). The sac comes through a hole or weak area in the fascia, the strong layer of the abdominal wall that surrounds the muscle.

Abnormalities of scrotum:

Hernia, tumor, orchitis, hydrocele, spermotocele or varicocele.

Orchitis:

Inflammation of one or both of the testicles.

Hydrocele:

A fluid-filled sack along the spermatic cord within the scrotum (can be commone in newborns)

Spermatocele:

An abnormal sac (cyst) that develops in the epididymis. Generally painless and noncancerous, a spermatocele usually is filled with milky or clear fluid that may contain sperm.

Varicocele:

A widening of the veins along the cord that holds up a man's testicles.

Transillumination:

Performed to confirm swelling or mass in the scrotum; will show red glow.

Stricture:

Narrow opening

Condylomata acuminata:

Genital warts; Caused by HPV

Urethritis:

Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra from any cause; can cause discharge and dysuria.

Indirect Inguinal Hernia:

Most common type-pain w/straining; sac herniates through internal inguinal ring, which can remain in canal or pass into the scrotum.

Direct Inguinal Hernia:

Usually painless and brought on by heavy lifting; found through the external inguinal ring.

Femoral:

Least common and very painful; due to increased abdominal pressure or muscle weakness; found through the femoral ring and canal.

Internal sphincter:

Under involuntary control by the autonomic NS.

External sphincter:

Surrounds internal and is under voluntary control.

Anal columns:

Folds of mucosa that extend vertically down the rectum

Valves of Houston:

Three semilunar transverse folds in the rectal interior.

Prostate:

The male prostate gland is located below the bladder and has 15-30 ducts that open into the urethra. The seminal vesicles are located posterior to the prostate. The urethra exits from the bladder and traverses the prostate before exiting to the penile urethra.

Seminal Vesicles:

The two seminal vesicles project like rabbit ears above the prostate and contribute approximately 60 percent of the fluids passed from the human male during ejaculation.

Bulbourethral glands:

Also called Cowper's Gland; two pea-shaped glands in the male, located beneath the prostate gland at the beginning of the internal portion of the penis; they add fluids to semen during the process of ejaculation. The glands have ducts that empty into the urethra.

Meconium:

Meconium is a thick, green, tar like substance that lines your baby's intestines during pregnancy. Typically this substance is not release in your baby's bowel movements until after birth. However, occasionally you will find that your baby will have a bowel movement prior to birth, excreting the meconium into the amniotic fluid.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia:

A nonmalignant (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. It is also known as BPH.

African Americans:

Racial group most likely to have prostate cancer.

50:

Age at which men should begin prostate screenings.

Tests for Prostate Cancer:

PSA-prostate-specific antigen blood test
DRE-Digital rectal exam

Dyschezia (dys·che·zi·a):

Difficult or painful evacuation of feces from the rectum.

Colitis:

Inflammation of the large intestine (colon).

Gastroenteritis:

Also known as gastric flu or stomach flu (although unrelated to influenza) is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea.

Bright red:

This type of blood indicates a fresh bleed.

Steatorrhea:

The presence of excess fat in feces.

Pruritus:

An unpleasant sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

Lithotomy:

Pap-smear position

Imperforate anus:

A congenital defect in which the opening to the anus is missing or blocked. The anus is the opening to the rectum through which stools leave the body.

Anal fissure:

A small split or tear in the thin moist tissue (mucosa) lining the lower rectum (anus).

Valsalva maneuver:

A person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in strenuous coughing, straining during a bowel movement, or lifting a heavy weight. The Valsalva maneuver impedes the return of venous blood to the heart.

Pilonidal Cyst or Sinus:

Is a cyst or abscess near or on the natal cleft of the buttocks that often contains hair and skin debris.

Anorectal fistula:

An abnormal passageway between the inside surface of the rectum, and the outside skin that surrounds the anus; usually originates from a local abscess.

Fissure:

A painful longitudinal tear in the superficial mucosa at the anal margin.

Hemorrhoids:

Painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of the rectum or anus that result from increased pressure in the veins of the anus. The pressure causes the veins to bulge and expand, making them painful, particularly when you are sitting.

Rectal Prolapse:

Rectal mucous membrane protudes through the anus.

Pruritus Ani:

Intense parianal itching is manifested by red, raised, thickened excoriated skin around the anus.

Absecss:

Internal or external cavity of pus from infection in a pararectal space.

Rectal Polyp:

Protruding growth from the rectal mucous membrane.

Prostatitis:

Inflammation of the prostate gland

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