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Legally, John Marshall would have agreed most closely with
a. Justice Taney's response to Ableman v. Booth
b. personal-liberty laws.
c. the right of states to secede from the Union.
d. the Democratic Party.
e. the Charles River Bridge decision.

a. Justice Taney's response to Ableman v. Booth

The sectionalism that eventually broke out into civil war had its beginnings in the
a. Articles of Confederation.
b. issue of statehood for Missouri.
c. Mexican War.
d. nullification movement in South Carolina.
e. colonial settlements.

e. colonial settlements.

According to Salomon de Rothschild, the North pushed to end slavery for humanitarian reasons and
a. the spirit of leveling.
b. because abolitionists had gained control of the state legislatures.
c. spite.
d. to destroy the South.
e. because they had no economic stake in it.

a. the spirit of leveling.

By 1860, which of the following made compromise virtually impossible?
a. State actions
b. Congressional legislation
c. A compromise
d. A court case
e. Abolitionists becoming the majority in the north

d. A court case

The introduction of the third parties in the 1850s occurred because
a. there was an emergence of professional politicians.
b. important issues were not being addressed.
c. both of the major parties had disintegrated.
d. the West wanted its own advocate.
e. the two major parties were split internally.

b. important issues were not being addressed.

Radical secessionists were most alike in tone to which Revolutionary leader?
a. John Adams
b. Thomas Paine
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. Samuel Adams
e. John Dickinson

d. Samuel Adams

Lincoln's stand on slavery corresponded most closely with the principles of the
a. Liberty Party.
b. American Party.
c. Whig Party.
d. Constitutional Union Party.
e. Free Soil Party.

e. Free Soil Party.

Which of the following was the greatest problem for President Lincoln during the Civil War?
a. Congressional oversight
b. Finding a capable general
c. Secretary Cameron's problems
d. His indecisiveness
e. Loyalty within his cabinet

b. Finding a capable general

President Lincoln's most significant foreign policy achievement during the Civil War was
a. purchasing Alaska.
b. meeting Mexico's challenge to the Monroe Doctrine.
c. keeping European powers from aiding the Confederacy militarily.
d. getting Russian support for the Union cause.
e. securing extradition of copperhead traitors from the Canadian government.

c. keeping European powers from aiding the Confederacy militarily.

Lincoln's actions as commander in chief during the Civil War were most like the philosophy of
a. Thomas Jefferson.
b. Henry Clay.
c. William Lloyd Garrison.
d. Daniel Webster.
e. Alexander Hamilton.

e. Alexander Hamilton.

Which reform is most closely connected with the Grant administration?
a. Enacting compulsory school-attendance laws for all states
b. Securing the right to vote for all U.S. citizens regardless of race
c. Granting equal property rights for women
d. Implementing an eight-hour work day with time and a half for overtime
e. Providing for the direct election of U.S. senators

b. Securing the right to vote for all U.S. citizens regardless of race

Why was it necessary to add the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution?
a. The original document condoned slavery and each state's right to set its own voting requirements.
b. The Bill of Rights gave state laws precedence over federal laws.
c. It wasn't. They were passed merely for emphasis and propaganda.
d. The Constitution outlawed the federal government's interference with state laws.
e. The Articles of Confederation had not provided for protection of rights from the national government.

a. The original document condoned slavery and each state's right to set its own voting requirements.

Which statement is true regarding radical Reconstruction?
a. There was no way the South could have avoided it.
b. Its sole motivation was to punish the South for its insurrection.
c. Each freed slave was given forty acres of land and a mule.
d. Neither Thaddeus Stevens nor Charles Sumner cared about the rights of freed slaves.
e. It was simultaneously a reform movement and a means of redistributing the nation's wealth.

e. It was simultaneously a reform movement and a means of redistributing the nation's wealth.

The president who had the most trouble with Congress was
a. John Tyler.
b. Ulysses S. Grant.
c. John Adams.
d. Andrew Johnson.
e. Abraham Lincoln.

d. Andrew Johnson.

Of the following, the most unique election in U.S. history was
a. 1864
b. 1876
c. 1824
d. 1800
e. 1868

b. 1876

The greatest Manifest Destiny issue for political parties was
a. California.
b. Texas.
c. slavery.
d. Oregon.
e. Native Americans.

c. slavery.

"Fifty-four forty or fight!" was
a. the battle cry for the Mexican War.
b. a push for American control of Oregon.
c. a reference to the conquest of California.
d. a political slogan for Martin Van Buren.
e. the charge yelled by gold rushers.

b. a push for American control of Oregon.

The practical reality of the Dred Scott decision was that
a. slavery could exist only if the residents of an area wanted it.
b. slavery could exist everywhere in the nation.
c. it temporarily lessened the animosity between the North and the South.
d. Congress had the constitutional right to limit slavery in the territories.
e. popular sovereignty was the most practical solution to the slavery controversy.

b. slavery could exist everywhere in the nation.

The first battle of the Civil War was
a. Antietem.
b. Vicksburg.
c. Manassas.
d. Bull Run.
e. Fort Sumter.

e. Fort Sumter.

The major cause of death for Civil War soldiers was
a. renegade attacks like those from Quantrill's Raiders.
b. poor quality food.
c. sniper attacks.
d. wounds received in formal combat.
e. disease and infection.

e. disease and infection.

The Thirteenth Amendment
a. prohibited slavery throughout the United States.
b. balanced the power between the North and the South in the Senate.
c. made secession from the Union illegal.
d. protected citizens through habeas corpus.
e. granted citizenship to slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.

a. prohibited slavery throughout the United States.

The Emancipation Proclamation stated that
a. all slaves in the United States would be freed.
b. all fugitive slaves and all slaves captured by the Union Army were forever free.
c. slaves in the seceded states would be freed.
d. slaves in the border states would be freed.
e. the Union Army was authorized to confiscate all property, including slaves, used to support the rebellion.

c. slaves in the seceded states would be freed.

Which is true of the role played by African Americans in the Civil War?
a. Black men refused to fight in the "white man's war."
b. Blacks served in segregated regiments and showed great valor.
c. Blacks were not allowed to fight in either Union Army.
d. Military service assured an end of racial discrimination for blacks.
e. Some slaves gladly fought for the Confederacy.

b. Blacks served in segregated regiments and showed great valor.

The Civil War is said to be the first total war in modern times. A "total war" is
a. when the war is not over without total victory by one side.
b. one fought by people of the same country; no other nations are involved.
c. when every available man has to fight.
d. one where all the resources, including civilians, are geared for war.
e. a world war.

d. one where all the resources, including civilians, are geared for war.

Why did President Johnson veto two major Congressional bills that aided freed slaves? He
a. wanted to get back at the Radical Republicans for going against his Reconstruction plan.
b. did not get along with the Radical Republicans.
c. believed they went against everything for which the Republican Party stood.
d. felt they were against the spirit of the Wade-Davis Bill.
e. said the bills pushed the nation toward too much centralization.

e. said the bills pushed the nation toward too much centralization.

The election of 1876 was
a. determined by an electoral commission established by Congress.
b. disrupted by the third party candidacy of Horace Greeley.
c. a plebiscite concerning Reconstruction.
d. a referendum against the Grant administration's scandals.
e. decided by the Supreme Court.

a. determined by an electoral commission established by Congress.

Most scalawags were
a. self-serving Northern interlopers.
b. greedy ex-slaves.
c. members of the Freedman's Bureau.
d. Southern yeoman farmers.
e. former overseers who were jealous of planters' wealth.

d. Southern yeoman farmers.

The Freedman's Bureau was
a. created by Congress to help ex-slaves adjust to freedom and secure their basic civil rights.
b. an organization established to help Southern whites deal with the problem of freed slaves.
c. instituted by private citizens to help former slaves.
d. part of Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan.
e. founded by ex-Confederate states to help rebuild the South.

a. created by Congress to help ex-slaves adjust to freedom and secure their basic civil rights.

Which of the following is associated with Grant's administration?
a. Civil Service reform
b. The Whiskey Ring scandal
c. Financial prosperity
d. The end of Reconstruction
e. Lee's surrender at Appomattox

b. The Whiskey Ring scandal

The underlying reason Congress impeached Andrew Johnson was because
a. Johnson dismissed Secretary of State William Seward.
b. he encouraged miscegenation (mixing) between the races.
c. he attempted to undermine radical Reconstruction.
d. he refused to support the Civil War amendments.
e. he violated the Tenure of Office Act.

c. he attempted to undermine radical Reconstruction.

The Great Awakening challenged both...and... in the South
a. Chotholicism- Quakers
b. Anglicanism- Planter power elites
c. Congregationalists- Presbiterians
d. Quakers- Puritans
e. Lutherans- Calvinists

b. Anglicanism- Planter power elites

Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, and legislated in it place the much more damaging law called?
a. Virginia Resolves
b. Currency Act
c. Decloratory Act
d. Townsend Act
e. Intolerable Act

c. Decloratory Act

Which American colonial leader said, "The cause of Boston...is...the cause of America"?
a. Patrick Henry
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. George Washington
d. John Adams
e. James Otis

c. George Washington

Which of the following American groups led the War of Independence intil 1777 when the Articles of Confederation was installed as the governmentof the colonies?
a. First Continental Congress
b. Albany Congress
c. Committees of Correspondence
d. Privy Council
e. Second Continental Congress

e. Second Continental Congress

The four "self-evident truths" discussed by the committee of the Declaration included ALL EXCEPT:
a. Life
b. Liberty
c. Right of revolution
d. Property
e. Persuit of happiness

c. Right of revolution

The major interest of France in the conflict between Britain and the colonies was that France
a. hoped to gain concessions from the Americas
b. hoped to regain lost territory during the French and Indian war
c. supported the ideals of the Declaration of Independence
d. keep England weakened by a protracted war
e. maintain an alliance with Holland against Spain and England

b. hoped to regain lost territory during the French and Indian war

The nature of the Articles of Confederation were designed by the revolutionary leaders to be a
a. a strong centralized government
b. a regional government of sections
c. a decentralized government with limited powers
d. a revolutionary council
e. a constitutional monarchy

c. a decentralized government with limited powers

The Northwest Ordinance of 1785 & 1787 had the effect of
a. Extending the sixe of the original thirteen colonies
b. Weakening the national governments authority
c. Pushing the last vestiges of British authority from the Northwest
d. Developing commerce with teh Dutch
e. Developing procedures for creation new states

e. Developing procedures for creation new states

Who was the most prominent person missing from the Philidelphia Convention of 1787?
a. Roger Sherman
b. Alexander Hamilton
c. George Washington
d. Benjamin Franklin
e. Thomas Jefferson

e. Thomas Jefferson

One of the major outcomes of Shay's rebellion was that it helped convince many states that
a. another revolution was desirable
b. a stronger and more stable government was necessary
c. personal wealth should be limited
d. a more egalitarian society was a more orderly society
e. slavery was a poor solution to the nation's economic woes

b. a stronger and more stable government was necessary

Alexander Hamilton's vision of a new America called for all of the EXCEPT:
a. transforming the new republic into a manufactuing power
b. relying on local and state authority to act in the national economic interest
c. giving the new government authority to regulate and guide the economy
d. forging a productive cooperative partnership to regualte and guide the economy
e. establish a national bank

b. relying on local and state authority to act in the national economic interest

The "Virginia Plan" presented at the Philidelphia Convention provisiona to provide for ALL EXCEPT:
a. a bicameral legeslature
b. representation in both houses apportioned according to population
c. congressional power to tax
d. congressional power to veto state laws
e. a single Supreme Court

d. congressional power to veto state laws

Which of the following did NOT occur in the Washington Administration?
a. French Revolution
b. Development of the cotton economy
c. Emeregence of political ideology & partnership
d. Alien and Sedition Acts
e. Development of the President's cabinet

d. Alien and Sedition Acts

Who was the primary author and draftsman of the Constitution of 1789?
a. Thomas Jefferson
b. Johm Adams
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. James Madison
e. Alexander Hamilton

d. James Madison

The election of 1800 has often been called the "Recolution of 1800" for which of the following reasons?
a. it was the peacful transfer of power from the Federalists to the Republicans
b. it was because of American participation in the French Revolution
c. it was because of the industrial changes tot he American economy
d. it was because of the rejection of slavery in America

a. it was the peacful transfer of power from the Federalists to the Republicans

Which of the following was a major diplomatic achievement with Britain?
a. Jay's Treaty
b. Treaty of San Lorenzo
c. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
d. Pickney's Treaty
e. Treaty of Holston

a. Jay's Treaty

As a result of the War of 1812:
a. Andrew Jackson emerged as a military and political hero
b. The United States became increasingly dependent on Europe
c. The Federalist party enjoyed a continuing political revivalation
d. American politics focused more clearly on sectional issues
e. John Adams re-emerged as a major American diplomat

a. Andrew Jackson emerged as a military and political hero

The group of young politicians to emerge in the election if 1810 were:
a. Anti-federalists
b. Republicans
c. War Hawks
d. Anti-war doves
e. Eagle Warriors

c. War Hawks

The major issue during the Presidential Campaign of 1820 was
a. Treaty of Ghent
b. Gadsden Purchase
c. Marshall's Supreme Court decisions
d. Missouri Compromise
e. The national bank

d. Missouri Compromise

Napoleon was willing to sell Louisiana to the United States because he needed money to finance his
a. new empire in North America
b. military campaigns in Europe
c. reconquest of Haiti
d. colonization efforst in Africa
e. conquest of Greece

b. military campaigns in Europe

Who were the leaders of the Corps of Discovery
a. Zebulon Pike and Jedediah Smith
b. George Rogers Clacrck and Greg Lewis
c. Meriwether Lewis and Davy Crickett
d. Willian Clark and Meriwether Lewis

d. Willian Clark and Meriwether Lewis

Who were the two men who negotiated the purchase of Louisiana?
a. James Madison and Henry Knox
b. James Monroe and Robert Livingston
c. Alexander Hamilton and John Marshall
d. John Jay and Albert Gallatin
e. James Madison and Andrew Jackson

b. James Monroe and Robert Livingston

The Monroe Docterine of 1823 indicated the desire or teh United States to:
a. cooperate the Great Britain in matters of foreign policy
b. oppose any European plans to help Spain regain it American territories
c. assert it coul exercise control over the countries of the American continents
d. establish formal diplomatic relations with the newly independent nations of Latin America
e. establish a bilateral agreement with Brazil to police South America

c. assert it coul exercise control over the countries of the American continents

What significant affect did John Adams have the development of the Federal Judiciary?
a. appointment of the midnight judges
b. firing of Justice Pickering
c. naming Oliver Ellsworth at Chief Justice
d. repeal the Judiciary At of 1801
e. nomination of Judge Bushrod Washington

a. appointment of the midnight judges

Which of the following Native American leaders proved to be formidable military commander and leader against White settlement in the Ohio Valley?
a. Squanto
b. Tecumseh
c. Red Cloud
d. Sequoyah
e. Walker

b. Tecumseh

Critical to the development of an emerging nation included all of the following EXCEPT
a. development of national roads
b. development of canals
c. inventions that would speed up the processes of cemmerce
d. to expand across the continent
e. to abolish slavery as a form of effective labor

e. to abolish slavery as a form of effective labor

What major reason and motivation was there for developing water transportation?
a. It was faster than land
b. It was cheaper than land transportation
c. It was an already established system
d. It was the product of European inventions

b. It was cheaper than land transportation

In the late 18th century and early 19th century Oliver Evans was instrumental in:
a. building canals
b. procuring government subsidies
c. hiring women to work in the mills
d. relocating the mill industry into the Ohio Valley
e. introducing mechanization which reduced manual labor

e. introducing mechanization which reduced manual labor

The poor during the new republic made up about what percentage of the population?
a. 30%
b. 40%
c. 50%
c. 70%
d. 80%

c. 70%

During the age of the new republic, the obligation of a child's education rested in...
a. the home
b. the church
c. the community
d. the state
e. the nation

a. the home

Perhaps teh most famous Second Great Awakening figure, the young preahcer who brought the religios revival messages to thousands of new immagrants residing on the frontier was:
a. Charles Grandison Finney
b. William Ellery Channgin
c. Lyman Beecher
d. Samuel Hopkins
e. Ralph Waldo Emerxon

a. Charles Grandison Finney

In their protests againts the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and Madison
a. asked the Supreme Court to declare the laws unconstitutional
b. called for the impeachment of President John Adams
c. accused Adams of being a tool and a fool of the British
d. asserted that states could refuse to enforce the federal law that exceeded the grant of Constitutional government
e. led a political sit-in in Washington D. C.

d. asserted that states could refuse to enforce the federal law that exceeded the grant of Constitutional government

In the XYZ Affair
a. England agreed to abandon the forts in the Northwest
b. French officials demanded a bribe o open negotiations with US
c. Adams broke with his party and sent a new peace commissioner to France
d. the Cherokee Indians were defeated by the Spanish in Florida
e. the United States agreed to end the Quasi-War with France

b. French officials demanded a bribe o open negotiations with US

Which of the following statements best describes the American conception of the republican ideal?
a. to Americans, a republic was simply a state that had no monarch
b. individuals rights and liberties were Americans primary concern
c. Local governments were subordinate tothe state governments
d. each individual had rights and responsibilities in the collective state
e. each of the thirteen states decided theis separately

d. each individual had rights and responsibilities in the collective state

In response to France's hostile actions, John Adams
a. negotiated the Treaty of Versailles
b. negotiated an alliance with Britain known as the XYZ Affair
c. authorized the army to invade French Louisiana
d. asked Congress to declare war against Napoleonic France
e. conucted unofficial naval warfare on the high seas with France

e. conucted unofficial naval warfare on the high seas with France

A colonial institution that did NOT have its roots in England was
a. representative assemblies
b. trial by jury
c. established churches
d. town meetings
e. two-house legislatures

d. town meetings

Thomas Grimke's statement "Give me a host of educated pious mothers and sisters and I will revolutionize a country, in moral and religious taste," was
a. an argument about the problems created by primogeniture
b. refuting public disdain for the increse in college education for women
c. an endorsement of the southern view of women's role
d. referring to the concept of republican motherhood
e. indicating the role both married and single women played in the Second Great Awakening

d. referring to the concept of republican motherhood

Who of the following was most opposed to the ratification of the Constitution?
a. Farmers on the frontier
b. People with strong religious convictions
c. Citizens in the north with business and financial interests
d. Merchants on the east
e. Large plantation owners

a. Farmers on the frontier

Why did Alexander Hamilton keep a national debt?
a. he wanted to save some money for emergencies
b. he wanted to use some of the money to facilitate westward expansion to promote the increase in states
c. the governmetn did not have enough revenue to pay it off
d. he did not believe the government had the power to pay it off
e. he new creditors would work to preserve the national government in order to protect their investment

e. he new creditors would work to preserve the national government in order to protect their investment

The concept of republican virtue most closely resembles
a. Marshall's view of government
b. Federalist thinking
c. Jefferson philosophy
d. Deism
e. Hamilton's financial program

c. Jefferson philosophy

Roman Catholic immigration in the 1840's
a. was a boon to public education
b. hindered unionism
c. impeded the growth of the temperance movement
d. was welcomed in northeastern Pennsylvania
e. was supported by Samuel F.B. Morse

b. hindered unionism

Charles Grandison Finney is most directly connected with
a. revivalism
b. the Industrial Revolution
c. the labor movement
d. nativism
e. the Waltham Plan

a. revivalism

Which of the following is associated with both the First and Second Great Awakenings?
a. Camp meetings
b. Burned Over District
c. Religious revival
d. New Lights
e. Founding of Princeton and Columbia Universities

c. Religious revival

Which of the following was most responsible for encouraging the growth of domestic markets in the first half of the nineteenth century?
a. an increase in the number of large factories
b. better transportation networks
c. the national government's loan policy
d. the national government's economic subsidies
e. increased farm production

b. better transportation networks

New England businessmen reversed their concern raised at the Hartford Convention regarding the westward movement because they realized the west would provide them with
a. support for a national bank
b. cheap labor
c. money capital to invest in their factories
d. new markets for their products
e. profitable locations for outscourcing

d. new markets for their products

Religious Revivalism, the temperance movement, benevolent activities, and Whig politics all helped
a. the antebellum women's movement
b. expansion of industry
c. Martin Van Buren get elected
d. rein in conservative political thinking
e. end sectionalism

a. the antebellum women's movement

Jacksonian democracy and Jeffersonian republicanism were most similar in their
a. dealings with native peoples
b. support for average Americans
c. treatment of the national bank
d. views on patronage
e. efforts to consolidate executive power

b. support for average Americans

Which two presidents had the most strained relationship with the Supreme Court of the United States?
a. Washington and Quincy Adams
b. Van Buren and Adams
c. Madison and Tyler
d. Jefferson and Jackson
e. Washington and William Henry Harrison

d. Jefferson and Jackson

President Lincoln's belief that no state can nullify a law of the United States, which he upheld during the secession crisis, was most similar to action taken by which president?
a. Monroe
b. Madison
c. Jefferson
d. Jackson
e. Van Buren

d. Jackson

Which of the following is a true statement about the Indian Removal Act?
a. some Cherokee Indians promoted it
b. it eliminated the Seminole Indians from Florida
c. it was precipitated by Black Hawk's war
d. congress passed it despite much public outcry
e. John Marshall upheld the act in Worcester vs. Georgia

a. some Cherokee Indians promoted it

Which of the following was NOT a facet of urban popular culture in the antebellum period?
a. commercialized sex
b. fashion consciousness
c. popular entertainment
d. slavery
e. nativism

d. slavery

Which of the following is an example of America being a welcoming place for immigrants?
a. the Alien and Sedition Acts
b. minstrel shows
c. German-language shop signs
d. temperance reformers
e. the Whig Party

c. German-language shop signs

Which of the following religious movements originated in the United States?
a. Mormonism
b. Puritanism
c. Presbyterianism
d. Unitarianism
e. Cotholicism

a. Mormonism

The antebellum reform movement was, in large part, precipitated by
a. national government initiatives
b. a religious revival movement
c. state government initiatives
d. an economic recession
e. nativist pressures

b. a religious revival movement

Central New York was labeled the "Burned Over District" because
a. it was subject to seasonal forest fires for over a decade
b. the westward movement was so intense, the immigrants wore the grass off the earth, leaving a scorched appearance
c. it was home to may religious revivals and reform movements
d. transcendentalism began there with a plea to purge commercialism from its followers' hearts
e. Charles Grandison Finney traveled to Rochester only to witness the city's greatest conflagration

c. it was home to may religious revivals and reform movements

Which of the following supports Edmund Morgan's thesis that slavery for blacks brought freedom for whites?
a. many southern states passed laws against racially mixed marriages
b. the freehold system in the northern colonies
c. there was much miscegenation
d. republican equality originated as a southern objectives
e. Leisler's Rebellion proved that slave revolts would not be tolerated by Southerners, slave owners or not

d. republican equality originated as a southern objectives

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