1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
a war time conference held at Potsdam, Germany that was attended by Truman, Attlee, and Stalin. It agreed on the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line as the border of areas administrated by government of Poland, the expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the borders of Germany, war reparations, reversion of all German annexations in Europe after 1937, statement of aims and means of the occupation of Germany, and the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. In addition, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.
Graying of America
the aging of the American population, or increase of the proportion of elderly citizens, caused by a declining birth rate and increased life expectancy. Caused an increase in costliness of Social Security pensions, rapid increase in health costs, and meant the elderly would be politically formidable.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
This region consists of a broad band of states running across the South from Florida to Texas, extending west and north to include California and the Pacific Northwest. Beginning in the 1970s, this area experienced rapid economic growth and major gains in population.
Urban areas in New England and Middle West characterized by concentrations of declining industries (steel or textiles).
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, and also the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired (later sometimes called "beatniks"). Central elements of "Beat" culture include a rejection of mainstream American values, experimentation with drugs and alternate forms of sexuality, and an interest in Eastern spirituality. Examples: Ginsberg and Kerouac
Brown v. Board of Ed
Ruled that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Reversed the principle of "separate but equal" established in Plessy v Ferguson
key civil rights organization. Southern Christian Leadership Conference. founded in 1957 by, among others, Dr. MLK Jr.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Mostly college age students who were unhappy with the pace of change in Civil Rights.
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
attempt to desegregate citadel of segregation; use of police dogs and fire hoses on nonviolent protesters; desegregation partially achieved; sympathy for civil rights movement -> federal legislation for civil rights
Civil Rights Act 1964
Title II banned discrimination in public places on the basis of race, color, national origin, or religion. title VII prohibited employment discrimination based on gender.
Voting Rights Act 1965
stop voting discrimination in the south - Suspended literacy tests, empowered federal officials to register voters, prohibited states from changing voting procedures without federal permission.
Freedom Summer 1965
Voter Registration were main focus, violence made some activists involved more radical, SNCC, CORE and SCLC united to form COFO to coordinate activities in Mississippi, murder of 3 men helped win sympathy for Civil Rights Movements