Chapter 4

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parts and functions of cells

Light microscope

an optical instrument with lenses that bend visible light

Cell theory

all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells

Cytoplasm description

everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus

Nucleus description

the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell

Plasma membrane description

consists of a phopholipid bilayer in which are embedded proteins

Nucleolus description

a structure inside the nucleus

Ribosomes description

A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into 2 subunits

rough ER description

has ribosomes that stud the out surface of the membrane

smooth ER description

lack attached ribosomes

Golgi description

an organelle in a eukaryotic cel consisting of stack and membrane sacs

Lysosome description

a digestive organelle that contains hydrolytic organelles

Chromosomes description

located in the nucleus, made of DNA and some protein, contains genes

Centrosomes/Centrioles

-animals only
structures composed of microtubules and microfilaments

Cell wall description

rigid, tough, made of cellulose, only in plants

Vacuoles and vesicles description

membrane sac
one is large and usually in plants and the other is smaller and usually in animals

Cytoplasm function

constantly moving, pads and supports organelles in the cell

Nucleus function

contains cells DNA
Controls the cells activities via protein synthesis

Plasma membrane function

Sets cell of from surroundings
Acts as a selective barrier
Recognizes signals from other cells

Nucleolus function

ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported to make ribosomal subunits

Ribosomes function

carry out protein synthesis
-proteins with bound ribosomes specialize in secretion

Peroxisomes description

contains enzymes for metabolic processes

Cytoskeleton description

-supports the cell and provides shape
-centrioles, flagella,cilia

Mitochondria function

supplies most of the energy for the cell

Chlorplast function

captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food

Peroxisomes function

break down unwanted lipids
break down hydrogen perioxide

Cytoskeleton function

aids in movement of materials in and out of cells
supports

Rough ER function

works on protein

Smooth ER function

synthesize lipids
helps liver process drugs and potentially harmful substances
makes membrane

Golgi function

finishes sorts, labels, and ships products of ER
Ships proteins in vesicles

Lysosome function

digests food which is used for energy
cleans up and recycles-digests non-working or unwanted cells

Chromosomes function

provides instructions for the cells activities (growth and reproduction)

Centrosome/Centriole function

coordinate the building and breaking of microtubules
generate cytoskeleton
coordinate division

Cilia/flagella function

how some microorganisms travel; the tails propel the organism forward

Cell wall function

protects and supports plant cells

Vacoules/vesicles function

moving material around the cell
water storage

tight junction

prevent leakage of extracellular fluid

anchoring junctions

fasten cells together in long sheets (common in muscle cells)

Gap junctions

are channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein lined pore btw neighboring cells

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