Family therapists have "turned against" strategic therapy because...
its strategies provoked or manipulated families to change with or without their cooperation.
The dominant approaches of the 21st century have encouraged therapists to focus on ___ rather than ___ and have encouraged therapists to be ___ rather than ___.
cognition, behavior, collaborative, manipulative
Strategic therapy's big names (3)
Jay Haley, John Weakland, Mara Selvini Palazzoli
Strategic therapy taught us two major pieces of insight into human nature:
(1) that families often perpetuate problems by their own actions (2) that directives tailored to the needs of a particular family can sometimes bring about sudden and decisive change
Strategic therapy grew out of which theory?
the idea that events are related through series of interacting loops/repeating cycles
a method of interviewing (Milan) in which questions are asked that highlight differences among family members
study of relationships in terms of exchange of verbal/nonverbal messages
study of control processes in systems, especially analysis of flow of info in closed systems
homework designed to help families interrupt homeostatic patterns of problem-maintaining behavior
A conflict is created when a person receives contradictory messages on different levels of abstraction in important relationship and can't leave or comment.
The tendency of families to resist change to maintain steady state.
(from Milan systemic model/Palazzoli) prescribes set of actions designed to change family systems' rules
a descriptive term for redundant behavior patterns
return of portion of output of a system, especially when used to maintain output within predetermined limits (negative feedback) or to signal a need to modify system (positive feedback)
a superficial change in a system that stays invariant
Function of symptoms
The idea that symptoms are often ways to distract/protect family members from threatening conflicts.
General systems theory
a biological model of living systems as whole entities that maintain themselves through continuous input/output from environment
family functioning based on clear generational boundaries whereby parents maintain control/authority
symptom bearer/official patient
an intervention in which parents are directed to mysteriously sneak away together
Every message has 2 levels: report and command. This term is the implied command or qualifying message.
balanced acceptance of family members
a paradoxical intervention in which client is directed to do something that is more of hardship than symptom
a self-contradictory statement based on a valid deduction from acceptable premises
The therapist directs family members to continue their symptomatic behavior. If they conform they admit control and expose secondary gain, and if they rebel, they give up their symptoms.
ascribing positive motives to family behavior to promote family cohesion and avoid resistance to therapy
Prescribing the symptom
a paradoxical technique that forces patient either to give up symptom or to admit that it is under voluntary control
a paradoxical intervention in which family members are asked to pretend to engage in symptomatic behavior, paradox is if they are pretending to have symptom then symptom can't be real
relabeling a family's description of behavior to make it more amenable to therapeutic change
overcome resistance by suggesting that family not change
a basic change in the structure of a system
any of several artful approaches that aim to manipulate behavior change to solve family problems
3 main models of Strategic Therapy:
Mental Research Institute (MRI), Haley and Madanes, and the Milan systemic model.
The intellectual birthplace of family therapy and strategic therapy:
the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto
Strategic therapy is ___ and does not ____ the client or offer clients ___.
brief, educate, insight
Who founded the Mental Research Institute (MRI)?
It is a group started by Jackson who worked with Bateson, as well as with Haley on the Bateson project.
Who founded the Haley and Madanes Strategic approach?
They were heavily influenced by Erikson, Bateson, and Minuchin. Erikson believed the unconscious was full of wisdom; thus, he didn't need to give people insight, just help them get access to it on their own.
Who founded the Milan Model?
Palazzoli was a prominent Italian psychoanalyst. She and her team of 8 other analysts read the works of Bateson, Haley... and did lots of research. In 1980, they split, with ½ continuing research and the other doing training.
What are the major assumptions of the MRI?
Families make common-sense but misguided attempts to solve their problems. The solution selection as well as its success is governed by system rules. The attempts go awry and the result is a positive feedback loop that makes the problem worse. What do you do? Three steps: (1.) identify the feedback loop, (2.) find the rules governing it, and (3.) change the loops and rules.
What are the major assumptions of the Haley and Madanes Strategic Approach?
They followed these same ideas as the MRI, but with some variations: (1.) The founders of this group were concerned with the function a symptom served, as it marked a payoff in the system that resulted due to the structure of the system. (2.) They also formulated that rules followed a hierarchical order, and thus improving the hierarchical and boundary problems would prevent dysfunctional feedback loops from starting, a sort of "plan ahead" strategy. (3.) They believe families go through dysfunctional stages to get to functional ones. Thus, They were interested more in short sequences, but also in long ones that last months or years and reflect chronic structural problems.
What are the major assumptions of the Milan Group?
They read and followed many of the works of MRI and Haley and Madanes, worked with power struggles and boundaries as well, and focused on long time spans spanning even multiple generations. They worked mostly with anorexic and schizophrenic families.
Madanes posits four categories that problems are the result of:
(a.) desire to control and dominate, (b.) desire to be loved, (c.) desire to love and protect others, and (d.) desire to repent and forgive.