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essential nutrients

any ingredient such as certain amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, or mineral that cannot be formed by an organism and must be supplied in the diet

macronutrients

a chemical substance required in large quantities (ex- phosphate)

micronutrients

a chemical substance required in small quantities (ex- trace metals)

growth factor

an organic compound such as a vitamin or amino acid that must be provided in the diet to facilitate growth; an essential nutrient

autotroph

a microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide

heterotroph

an organism that relies upon organic compounds for its carbon and energy needs

photoautotroph

an organism that utlilizes light for its energy and carbon dioxide chiefly for its carbon needs

chemoautotroph

an organism that relies upon inorganic chemicals for its energy and carbon dioxide for its carbon

saprobe

a microbe that decomposes organic remains from dead organisms

parasite

an organism that lives or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection

halophile

a microbe whose growth is either stimulated by salt or requires high concentration of salt for growth

alkalinophile

bacteria that likes basic of alkaline solution

neutrophile

bacteria that likes a neutral solution

acidophile

bacteria that likes an acidic solution

aerobe

a microorganism that lives and grows in the presense of free gaseous oxygen

anaerobe

a microorganism that grows best, or exclusively, in the absense of oxygen

facultative anaerobe

can live with or without the presense of oxygen

psychrophile

a microorganism that thrives at low temperatures with an optimum temperature at 0-15 deg. cel.

mesophile

microorganisms that grow at intermediate temperatures

thermophile

microorganisms that thrive at a temperature of 50 deg. cel. or higher

symbiosis

an intimate association between individuals from two species; used as a synonym for mutalism

parasitism

a relationship between two organisms in which the host is harmed in some way while the colonizer benefits

commensalism

an unequal relationship in which one species derives benefit without harming the other

mutalism

organisms living in an obligatory, but mutally benefitical relationship

binary fission

the formation of two new cells approximately equal size as the result of parent cell division

generation time

time requried for a complete fission cycle

lag phase

the early phase of population growth during which no signs of growth occur

log phase

maximum rate of cell division which growth is geometric in its rate of increase; also called exponenetial growth

stationary growth phase

phase when the population enters a survival mode in which cells stop growing or grow slowly

death or decline

end of cell growth due to lack of nutrition, depletion of environment, and accumulatio of wastes; population of cells begin to die

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