Semester One Final Literary Terms

46 terms by audgepodge10 

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Adverb

a word that tells us more about a verb; "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The man ran quickly); can also modify adjectives (Tara is really beautiful), or even others (It works very well.).

Allegory

a story with a hidden or symbolic meaning.
ex. Animal Farm.

Alliteration

the purposeful repetition of the initial consonant sounds.
ex. "Let us go forth to lead the land we love."

Allusion

a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art.
ex. Tower of Babel.

Analogy

an explanation based upon a comparison that explains or describes a subject by pointing out similiarties to another subject.

Anaphora

one of the devices of repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.
ex. "We shall... We shall... We shall..."

Anecdote

a short, often autobiographical, narrative told to achieve a purpose such as to provide an example, an illustration, or thematic truth.

Antithesis

a direct contrast structually parallel word groupings, generally for the purpose of contrast. (sink or swim.).

Aphorism

a statement of some general principle, expresses memorably by condensing much wisdom into a few words.
ex. "Without pain there is no gain."

Apostrophe

a figure of speech in which a speaker directly adresses an inanimate object or an absent person or a personified quality.
ex. O Romeo.
"Death be not proud".

Balanced Sentence

a sentence consisting of two or more clauses that are parallel in structure.
in grammar, a sentence with two clauses or phrases of fairly equal in length and strength for clarity
ex. "The novel concentrates on character; the film intensifies the violence," is a balanced sentence.

Chiasmus

parallel structure in inverted/mirror form- two corresponding pairs arranged not in parrallels (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a).
ex. "The truth is the light and the light is the truth.".

Conceit

an elaborate, complex metaphor or simile comparing two extremely disssimilar things.

Connotation

the set of associations that occur to people when they hear or read a word.

Cumulative Sentence (Loose Sentence)

same as a loose sentence, this sentece makes complete sense if brought to a close before actual ending. Begins with the main ideas and then expands on that idea with a series of details or other particulars. (opposite of periodic sentence.).

Ellipsis

the deliberate omission of a word or words implied by the context and by the parrallel structure.
ex. "To err is human; to forgive, divine."
....
"Whats up?".

Epiphany

a sudden understanding or realization which prior to this time was not thought of or understood.

Euphemism

a device where being indirect replaces directness to avoid embarrassment or unpleasantness.
ex. rest room for toliet.

Foreshadowing

the use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur.

Hyperbole

a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. (He was cut in half.).

Irony

the general name given to literary techniques that involve differences betweem appearance and reality, exceptation and result, or meaning and intention.
ex. fireman dying in a fire.

Litotes

a form of understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite. (it was not a pretty picture.).

Maxim

an expression of a general truth or principle, esp. an aphoristic or sententious one

Metaphor

a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken as if it were something else.
ex. life is a broken-winged bird.

Metonymy

a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
ex.i love shakespear.

Non Sequitur

besides being a very funny cartoon strip, it is a latin term which refers to a conclusion or inference that does not logically follow.

Onomatopoeia

the use of words that imitate sounds.
ex. crack.

Oxymoron

a two-word figure of speech that combines two opposing or contradictory ideas.
ex. freezing fire.

Parable

a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principle, or moral lesson.
a statement or comment that conveys a meaning indirectly by the use of comparison, analogy, or the like.
moral, told to someone else.

Paradox

an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.
ex. "What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.".

Parallelism

the repition of a grammatical structure.

Pathos

that quality in a real situation or in a literary work which evokes sympathy and a feeling of sorrow/pity, usually indicating a helpless suffering caused by outside forces.
ex. the animal cruelity commercials.

Periodic Sentence

a sentence that places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements. the effect is a kind of suspence, as the reader's attention is propelled toward the end.

Personification

a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics.
ex. the house jumped.

Polysyndeton

the repetion or conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses.
ex. and... and... and....

Satric

a style of writing that uses humor-sometimes gentle and sometimes biting- to criticize people, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving them. (SNL.).

Simile

a figure of speech in which like, as, or than is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects.
ex. she is as flighty as a sparrow.

Syllepsis

a construction in which one word seems to be in the same grammatical relation to two or more words but, in fact, is not.
ex. he lost both his coat and his temper.

Syllogism

a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. transitive property; a=b b=c, the a=c.
ex. all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.

Symbolism

an object that has its own meaning, but also represents and abstract idea. (Muller's boots.).

Synecdoche

a form of metaphor in which part of something is used to stand for the whole thing. (all hands on deck.).

Synesthesia

the concurrent response of two or more of the sense to the stimulation of one. (loud shirt.).

Syntax

the physical arrangement of words in a sentence.

Understatement

saying less than is actually meant, generally in an ironic way. (say 'pretty fair' but meaning 'splendid')

Verb

any member of a class of words that are formally distinguished in many languages, as in English by taking the past ending in -ed, that function as the main elements of predicates, that typically express action, state, or a relation between two things, and that (when inflected) may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood, and to show agreement with their subject or object.

Verbal

of or relating to or formed from a verb (running.).

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