Biology Module 3 Study Guide

52 terms by Greg_Albert_3

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Pseudopod

A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food

Nucleus

The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA

Vacuole

A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell

Ectoplasm

The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells

Endoplasm

The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells

Flagellate

A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum

Pellicle

A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane

Chloroplast

An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

A pigment necessary for photosynthesis

Eyespot

A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa

Symbiosis

a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits

Mutualism

a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association

Commensalism

a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited

Parasitism

A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed

Cilia

Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion

Spore

A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating

Plankton

Tiny organisms that float in the water

Zooplankton

Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa

Phytoplankton

Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae

Thallus

The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems

Cellulose

A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms

Holdfast

A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself

Sessile colony

a colony that uses hold fasts to anchor itself to an object

Identify: cell is a green transparent blob and has pseudopods

subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Sarcodina

Identify: cell is oval, transparent green and has a flagella

subkingdom Protozoa,
phylum Mastigophora

Identify: cells are red squiggles on a gray background

Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Sporozoa

Identify: cell is light blue and has cilia

Subkingdom Protozoa,
Phylum Ciliophora

Identify: cells are hard and green and look like 4-leafed clover

Subkingdom Algae,
phylum Chlorophyta

Identify: cells look like assorted green shells

Subkingdom algae,
phylum Chrysophyta

Identify: cell is green with a little pink in the middle

subkingdom algae,
phylum pyrrophyta

Identify: green seaweed

subkingdom algae,
phylum phaeophyta

Identify: red seaweed

subkingdom algae,
phylum rhodophyta

Which of the following genera contain organisms with chloroplasts?
Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Spirogyra

Genera Euglena and Spirogyra

What is the function of a contractile vacuole? What is the difference between this and a food vacuole?

A contractile vacuole collects excess water and releases it into the cell's surroundings. It regulates the amount of water in the cell, while the food vacuoles store and hold food.

What is the difference between endoplasm and ectoplasm?

They both make up the cytoplasm, but ectoplasm is found near the plasma membrane while endoplasm is denser and is nearer to the center of the cell.

Name 3 pathogenic organisms from kingdom protista

Toxoplasma
Trypanosoma
Plasmodium

What are the main features that separate organisms into phylum Sporozoa?

These organisms form spores and have no real means of locomotion

Why do ciliates have two nuclei?

They require so much energy that they need one for reproduction and one for controlling metabolism

What is the difference between the conjugation that occurs in paramecium and that which occurs in bacteria?

each paramecium transfers DNA to the other, while only 1 bacterium transfers DNA to the other

Which phylum contains the organisms responsible for most of the photosynthesis on earth?

phylum Chrysophyta (which contains the dinoflagellates)

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Flagellum

locomotion, phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Food vacuole

stores food. phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Contractile vacuole

removes excess water, releasing pressure. phylum Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Pellicle

retains cell shape. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Chloroplast

stores chlorophyll. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Eyespot

detects light. Mastigophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Cilia

locomotion. Ciliophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Nucleus

contains DNA. Ciliophora

Give the main function for this organelle. Also, choose at least one phylum that has organisms that possess the organelle.
Oral Groove.

food intake and conjugation. Ciliophora

What are large deposits of diatom remains called? What are two of its uses?

Diatomaceous earth. Abrasives and filters

What is red tide?

Red tide is an algae bloom of dinoflagellates.

What substances produced by members of phylum Rhaeophyta is useful for thickening ice cream?

algin

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