in vaginal epithelium, the amount of glycogen and the rate of sloughin are dependant on estrogen--when would glycogen levels likely be highest and why is this important?
during ovulation, facilitation of sperm activity
during the normal ovualtion cycle, estrogen produces an increase in the secretion of ___ by anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
what is the structure of the primordial follicle
primary oocytes that have acquired a single layer of flat surrounding cells (granulosa)
the interstitial cells of the ovarian stroma secrete___. what is the likely product
estrogen, development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty
in the formation of estrogen in the ovary, ____ stimulates the ___cells to synthesize androgens from cholesterol
LH, theca interna
in menses, the ____ layer of endometrium sloughs off when concentration of ___ falls below critical levels
how does the cervical mucous secreted at mid cycle differ from that secreted during the rest of the cycles
increased volume, more hydrated
in the ovarian hair follicule, FSH stimulates the ___cells to make estrogen from androgens
which is true about the secretory phase of the endometrium
uterine glands become highly coiled, stroma becomes edematous, spiral arteries become highly coiled
what is the significance of glycogen in the vaginal epithelium
make the environment more acidic for the sperm, to be released into the lumen when cells are sloughed off
the stroma of both the mammary glands and the endometrium become edematous in response to?
consider the ovarian folicle, what hormone stimulates the granulosa cells in the follicular phase
consider the ovarian folicle, what do the granulosa cells do in response to FSH stimulation
make estrogen from androgens
consider the post-pubescent female. give the effects of progesterone on the mammary gland
edema of the stroma, increase in stroma
consider the post-pubescent female. give the effects of estrogen on the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
increased LH, decreased FSH, move fimbrae closer to ovary
consider the post-pubescent female. give the effects of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa
increase glycogen, sloughing of epithelium
consider the post-pubescent female. give the effects of estrogen on the oviduct
ciliogenesis increase in secretion
consider the post-pubescent female. give the effects of progesterone on the endometrium
edema of stroma
consider the effects of estrogen. in the uterus it stimulates the ___ phase of endometrium
consider the effects of estrogen. in the mammary gland it causes
increases mitosis of the tubular ducts
vaginal glycogen comes form ____ cells and is produces in response to ___
epithelial lining, estrogen
what is the source of sexually stimulated vaginal lube
transudate from vascular plexus deep in the epithelium of vagina
consider the formation of estrogen; role of LH
stimulates theca interna to make androgen from cholesterol
consider the formation of estrogen; role of FSH
stimulates granulosa to make estrogen from androgen
What are the stages of follicular development?
primordial follicle-->primary follicle-->multilayered primary follicle-->secondary follicle-->graafian follicle
What is the zona pellucida?
an amorphous substance secreted between the granulosa cells and the oocyte
What do granulosa cells secrete into the intercellular space of the follicle to create the secondary follicle?
What happens to the cumulus oophorous just before ovulation?
it breaks down, allowing the oocyte to float freely within the antrum
What happens at ovulation?
the follicle swells through the tunica albiguinea and germinal epithelium, and bursts releasing the egg into the pelvic cavity
What kept the oocyte from meiotically dividing before just before ovulation?
oocyte maturation inhibitor
What is the function of progesterone?
induces growth of the endometrial lining preparing for implantation
After ovulation the theca interna becomes...
theca lutea, still produces androgens and progesterone
After ovulation granulosa cells are called...
granulosa lutean cells, and continue to produce progesterone and convert androgens to estradiol
If pregnancy occurs, what happens to the corpora? If it does not?
1. corpora persists for up to 3 months 2. corpora becomes corpora albicans and degenerates
Lactating mammary gland is...
mostly glandular, adipose tissue has been replaced by glands, alveoli bud from duct system