Essentials of Business Communications flashcards

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1.Advancements in technology an writing skills are increasingly important why?

because more messages are being transmitted.

2.Looking and sounding professional gains you?

credibility on the job.

3.Those with four-year degrees will earn nearly ? as much as high school dropouts?

three times

4.Communication is?

the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another.

5.The communication process has five steps ?

idea formation, message encoding, message transmission, message decoding, and feedback.

6.Most individuals listen at only ? percent efficiency.

25

7.Barriers to listening may be ?

physical, psychological, verbal, or nonverbal.

8.Physical barriers

impediments include hearing disabilities, poor acoustics, and noisy surroundings, ill, tired, uncomfortable, or worried

9.Psychological barriers

cultural, ethical, and personal values "tune out" the speaker

10.Language problems

Unfamiliar words, abortion or overdose has an intense emotional impact

11.Nonverbal distractions

Unusual clothing, speech mannerisms, body twitches, or a radical hairstyle

12.Nonverbal communication includes ?

all unwritten and unspoken messages, intended or not.

13.When verbal and nonverbal messages clash?

listeners tend to believe the nonverbal message.

14.The appearance of a message and of an individual can convey ?

positive or negative nonverbal messages.

15.Ethnocentrism is ?

the belief in the superiority of one's own culture and group.

16.A stereotype is ?

an oversimplified behavioral pattern applied to entire groups.

17.Developing intercultural tolerance means ?

practicing empathy, being nonjudgmental, and being patient.

18.The writing process has three parts:

prewriting, writing, and revising.

19.The first phase of the writing process involves

analyzing and anticipating the audience and then adapting to that audience.

20.Because revising is the most important part of the writing process,

it takes the most time. 50% 45 revising n 5 proofreading.

21.The primary purpose of most business messages is to

inform or to persuade; the secondary purpose is to promote goodwill.

22.Choosing an appropriate channel depends

imp. of message, feedback required, need for a perm. record, cost, needed degree of formality,confidentiality,sensitivity

23.By profiling your audience before you write ?

you can identify the appropriate tone, language, and channel for your message.

24.profiling the audience, you can decide whether the receiver will be ?

neutral, positive, or hostile toward your message.

25.empathy involves ?

shaping a message that appeals to the receiver.

26.Positive language creates?

goodwill and gives more options to receivers.

27.Good sources of primary information are

interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and focus groups.

28.Frontloading

saves the reader's time, establishes the proper frame of mind, and prevents frustration.

29.The indirect pattern works best when

the audience may be uninterested, unwilling, displeased, or even hostile.

30.Fragments are

broken-off parts of sentences and should not be punctuated as sentences.

31.When two independent clauses are run together without punctuation or a conjunction,

a run-on (fused) sentence results.

32.When two independent clauses are joined by a comma without a conjunction,

a comma splice results.

33.You can emphasize an idea mechanically by

using underlining, italics, boldface, font changes, all caps, dashes, and tabulation.

34.You can emphasize ideas stylistically by

using vivid words, labeling the main idea, and positioning the main idea strategically.

35.You can de-emphasize ideas by

using general words and placing the ideas in dependent clauses.

36.Active-voice sentences are preferred because

the subject is the doer of the action.

37.Balanced wording helps

the reader anticipate and comprehend your meaning.

38.Modifiers must be

close to the words they describe or limit.

39.The most readable paragraphs contain

a topic sentence, support sentences, and techniques to build coherence.

40.The most readable paragraphs contain ? or fewer printed lines.

eight

41.revision involves ?

improving content, sentence structure, and design; proofreading involves improving grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics.

42.avoid long lead-ins that prevent the reader from

reaching the meaning of the sentence.

43.redundancies

convey a meaning more than once.

44.Train yourself not to use

trite business expressions. (as per your request)

45.Jargon,

which is terminology unique to certain professions, should be reserved for individuals who understand it.

46.slang

sounds fashionable, but it lacks precise meaning and should be avoided in business writing. (moved it down the totem pole)

47.Drop clichés

that are dull and often ambiguous.(pass with flying colors)

48.successful document design

improves readability, strengthens comprehension, and enhances your image.

49.Business documents are most readable with

left-aligned text and ragged-right margins.

50.You can improve document readability with

ample white (empty) space.

51.serifs

small features at the ends of strokes Times new roman is a typeface with serifs; arial is a typeface without serifs (sans serif ).

52.improve the "skim" value of a message by

adding high-visibility vertical lists.

53.proofreading before a document is completed is

generally a waste of time.

54.compound sentence contains

two complete related thoughts

55.Paper-based messages include

business letters and memos.

56.Electronic messages include

e-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, podcasts, blogs, and wikis.

57.Much of your success in business and in life depends on how skilled you are at

persuading people to believe, accept, and act on what you are saying

58.Appropriate for brief comments, instant messaging

is faster and more interactive than e-mail.

59.E-mail messages and memos

inform employees, request data, give responses, confi rm decisions, and provide directions.

60.Hard-copy memos are useful for

internal messages that require a permanent record or formality.

61.Avoid sending sensitive, confidential, inflammatory, or potentially embarrassing messages because

e-mail is not private.

63.Organizations may ban instant messaging because of

productivity, security, litigation, and compliance fears.

64.Traditional direct-mail marketing uses ?

snail mail

65.electronic marketing uses ?

e-mail, web documents, and fax.

66.Finding a satisfying career requires you

to learning about yourself, the job market, and the employment process

67.employment Web sites list many jobs, but finding a job electronically requires

more work than simply clicking a mouse.

68.Chronological resumes focus on

job history with the most recent positions listed first

69.Recruiters may say they prefer

one-page resumes, but many choose to interview those with longer resumes

70.Sequential interviews

allow a candidate to meet individually with two or more interviewers over the course of several hours or days.

71.Before your interview,

take time to research the target company and learn about its goals, customers, competitors, reputation, and so forth.

72..Business letters are important for messages that require

a permanent record, confi dentiality, formality, sensitivity, and a wellconsidered presentation.

73.Messages that express thanks, recognition, and sympathy should be

written promptly.

74.Reports that present data without analysis or recommendations are

primarily information in nature

75.Formal reports

discuss the results of a process of thorough investigation and analysis

76.The facts for reports are often obtained from

company records, observation, surveys, interviews, printed material, and electronic resources.

77.The planning of every report begins with a

statement of purpose explaining the goal, signifi cance, and limitations of the report.

78.Business etiquette is closely related to

everyday ethical behavior.

79.Social intelligence is the ability

to get along well with others, and to get them to cooperate with you

80.Soft skills is the most common term for

important interpersonal habits

81.Although e-mail is a relatively new communication channel, people are beginning to agree on

specific formatting and usage conventions

82.Avoid sending sensitive, confi dential, inflammatory, or potentially embarrassing messages because

e-mail is not private.

83.The principal channel for delivering messages outside an organization

is business letters.

84.The sting of bad news can be reduced by

giving reasons and communicating sensitively

85.The indirect pattern softens the impact of bad news by

giving reasons and explanations first.

86.four parts of indirect pattern

buffer, reasons, bad news, closing

87.When it comes to persuasion, the power relationships at work determine how we write- whether we choose

a direct or indirect approach

88.direct pattern is appropriate when the receiver might

overlook the bad news, when firmness is necessary, and when the bad news is not damaging

89.Openers can buffer the bad news with

compliments, appreciation, agreement, relevant facts, and understanding

90.A moderate tone in your business message is

always important

91.Techniques for cushioning bad news include

positioning it strategically, and suggesting alternatives or compromises. (Also implying the refusal)

92.After explaining the bad news sensitively, close the message with

a pleasant statement that promotes goodwill.

93.A buffer is a ? and it is like?

neutral statement on which both the reader and writer can agree, such as a compliment

94.When you must deliver bad news in person, be sure to

gather all the information, prepare, and rehearse.

95.Most organizations can sustain employee morale by communicating bad news

openly and honestly

96.Persuasion is necessary when you

anticipate resistance or when you must prepare before you can present your ideas effectively.

97.rational appeals focus on

making or saving money, increasing effi ciency, or making good use of resources.

98.Instructions or directives moving downward from superiors to subordinates usually require

little persuasion

99.The key to making a request of a superior is to know

your needs and have documentation [facts, figures, evidence].

100.The 6th possible step in the communication process is

(additional feedback to receiver)

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