Chapter 14: Therapy

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Senior or Junior class in high school level.

Social Psychology

is the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Attribution Theory

deals with our casual explanations of behavior. We attribute behavior to the individual's dispositions upon the behavior of others.

Attitudes

are feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that may predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events.

Central Route Persuasion

occurs when people respond favorably to arguments as a result of engaging in systematic thinking about an issue.

Fundamental attribution Error

is our tendency to underestimate the impact of situations and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon the behavior of others.

Peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by more superficial and incidental cues, such as a speaker's reputation or appearance.

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

is the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

Role

is a set of expectations (norms) about how people in a specific social position ought to behave.

Cognitive dissonance theory

refers to the theory that we act to reduce the psychological discomfort we experience when our behavior conflicts with what we think and feel or, more generally, when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. This is frequently accomplished by changing our attitude rather than our behavior.

Cognitive dissonance

occurs when two thoughts, or cognitions, are at variance with one another.

Conformity

is the tendency to change one's thinking or behavior to coincide with a group standard.

Normative social influence

refers to influence that results from a person's desire to avoid rejection or gain social approval. //or// is the pressure groups exert on the individual to behave in ways acceptable to the group standard.

Informational social influence

results when a person is willing to accept others' opinions about reality.

Social Facilitation

is stronger performance of simple or well-learned tasks that occurs when other people are present.

Social loafing

is the tendency for individual effort to be diminished when one is part of a group working toward a common goal.

Deindividuation

refers to the loss of self-restraint and self-awareness that sometimes occurs in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Group polarization

refers to the unrealistic enhancement of a group's prevailing tendencies through discussion, which often has the effect of accentuating the group's differences from other groups.

Groupthink

refers to the unrealistic thought processes and decision making that occur within groups when the desire of group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal alternatives.

Culture

is the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Norms

are understood rules for accepted and expected behavior.

Personal space

refers to the buffer zone that people like to maintain around their bodies.

Prejudice

is an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members.

Stereotype

is a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

Discrimination

is unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its member.

Ingroup

refers to the people and groups with whom we share a common identity with.

outgroup

refers to the people and groups that are excluded from our ingroup.

ingroup bias

is the tendency to favor our own group.

scapegoat theory

purposes that prejudice provides and outlet of anger by finding someone to blame.

other-race effect

is our tendency to recall the faces of our own race more accurately than those of other races.

just-world phenomenon

Is a manifestation of the commonly held belief that good is rewarded and evil is punished. The logic is indisputable: "If I am rewarded, I must be good."

Aggression

is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

frustration-aggression principle

states that aggression is triggered when people become angry because their efforts to achieve a goal have been blocked.

mere exposure effect

refers to the fact that repeated exposure to an unfamiliar stimulus increases our liking of it.

Passionate love

refers to an arousal state of intense positive absorption to another person, especially at the beginning of a relationship.

Companionate love

refers to a deep, affectionate attachment to those with whom we share our lives

Equity

refers to the condition in which there is mutual giving and receiving between the partners in a relationship.

Self-disclosure

refers to a person's sharing intimate feelings with another.

Altruism

is unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

Bystander effect

is the tendency of a person to be less likely to offer help to someone if there are other people present.

Social exchange theory

states that our social behavior revolves around exchanges, in which we try to minimize our costs and maximize our benefits.

Reciprocity Norm

is the expectation that people will help those who have helped them.

Social-responsibility norm

is the expectation that people will help those who depend on them.

Conflict

is a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas between individuals or groups.

Social trap

is a situation in which conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behaviors because each persists in pursuing its own self-interest.

Mirror-image perceptions

are the negative, mutual views that conflicting people often hold about one another.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

is a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.

superordinate goals

are mutual goals that require the cooperation of individuals or groups otherwise in conflict.

GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction)

is a strategy of conflict resolution based on the defusing effect that conciliatory gestures can have on parties on conflict.

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