is the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
deals with our casual explanations of behavior. We attribute behavior to the individual's dispositions upon the behavior of others.
are feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that may predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events.
Central Route Persuasion
occurs when people respond favorably to arguments as a result of engaging in systematic thinking about an issue.
Fundamental attribution Error
is our tendency to underestimate the impact of situations and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon the behavior of others.
Peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by more superficial and incidental cues, such as a speaker's reputation or appearance.
is the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
is a set of expectations (norms) about how people in a specific social position ought to behave.
Cognitive dissonance theory
refers to the theory that we act to reduce the psychological discomfort we experience when our behavior conflicts with what we think and feel or, more generally, when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. This is frequently accomplished by changing our attitude rather than our behavior.
is the tendency to change one's thinking or behavior to coincide with a group standard.
Normative social influence
refers to influence that results from a person's desire to avoid rejection or gain social approval. //or// is the pressure groups exert on the individual to behave in ways acceptable to the group standard.
Informational social influence
results when a person is willing to accept others' opinions about reality.
is stronger performance of simple or well-learned tasks that occurs when other people are present.
is the tendency for individual effort to be diminished when one is part of a group working toward a common goal.
refers to the loss of self-restraint and self-awareness that sometimes occurs in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
refers to the unrealistic enhancement of a group's prevailing tendencies through discussion, which often has the effect of accentuating the group's differences from other groups.
refers to the unrealistic thought processes and decision making that occur within groups when the desire of group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal alternatives.
is the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
is a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
is our tendency to recall the faces of our own race more accurately than those of other races.
Is a manifestation of the commonly held belief that good is rewarded and evil is punished. The logic is indisputable: "If I am rewarded, I must be good."
states that aggression is triggered when people become angry because their efforts to achieve a goal have been blocked.
mere exposure effect
refers to the fact that repeated exposure to an unfamiliar stimulus increases our liking of it.
refers to an arousal state of intense positive absorption to another person, especially at the beginning of a relationship.
refers to the condition in which there is mutual giving and receiving between the partners in a relationship.
is the tendency of a person to be less likely to offer help to someone if there are other people present.
Social exchange theory
states that our social behavior revolves around exchanges, in which we try to minimize our costs and maximize our benefits.
is a situation in which conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behaviors because each persists in pursuing its own self-interest.
are the negative, mutual views that conflicting people often hold about one another.
are mutual goals that require the cooperation of individuals or groups otherwise in conflict.