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sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

perception

process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

bottom up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works upto the brains integration of sensory info

top down processing

info processing guiding by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

psychophysics

study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them

absolute threshold

minimum stimulation needed to detect a particulat stimulus 50percent of the time

signal detection theory

theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus "signal" amid background stimulation "noise" assumes there is no single absolute hreshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.

subliminal

below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness

priming

the often unconscious activation of certain associations thus predisposing ones perception, memory, or response

difference threshold

minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50percent of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference

Weber's law

the principle that, to be percieved as differenct, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of a stimulus energies, such as sights sounds and smells onto neural impulses our brains can interpret

wavelength

distance from the beek of one light or sound wave to the peak of the other. electromagnetic wavelengths vary from short blips of cosmic rays to long pulses of radio transmission

hue

dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light

intensity

amount of energy in light or sound wave, whcih we percieve as brightness or loudness, as determined by waves amplitude.

pupil

adjustable opening in center of eye through which light enters

iris

ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

lens

transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

accommodation

process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

visual capture

tendency for vision to dominate other senses

gestalt

organized whole. gestalkt psychologist emphasized our tendency to intergrate prieces of info into meaningful wholes

figure- ground

organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

grouping

perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

depth perception

the ablity to see objects in 3d although the images that strike the retina are 2d.. allows us to judge distances

visual cliff

laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence that depend on the use of two eyes

retinal disparity

binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance, the greater the distance the greater the dispartity (difference)

convergence

a binocular cue for percieving depth, the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. the greater the inward strain the closer the object

monocular cues

depth cues, such as interpostion and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick sucession

perceptual constancy

perceving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness,color,shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

perceptual adaptation

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual set

mental predispostion to percieve one thing and not another

human factor psychology

branch of psych that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and pyshical enviorments can be made safe and easy to use

esp

extrasensory perception- controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input

parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena, including esp and psychokinesis

retina

light snsitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual info.

acuity

sharpness of vision

nearsightedness

can only see near objects clearly

farsightedness

can only see far objects clearly

optic nerve

comprised of ganglion cells, carries neural impulses to brain from eye

blind spot

region of retina where optic nerve leaves the eye. no rods or cones here

fovea

retinas point of central focus contains only cones, images here are clearest

feature detectors

loctated in visual cortex of brain, nerve cells that selectively respond to specific features such as movement shape or angle

parallel processing

infor processing in wich several aspects of a stimulus are processed simultaneiously

trichromatic theory

theory that maintains that the retina contains red blue and green sensitive color receptors that incombo can produce perception or any color. explains first stage of color processing developed by young helmholtz

opponent processing theory

color vision depends on pairs of oppossing retinal processes (red green, blue yellow, white black) explains second stage of color processing

color constancy

perception that familiar objects have consistent color despite changes in illumination that shift the wavelengs they reflect

pitch

determinded by frq

middle ear

chamber with cochlea containing three bones (hammer anvil and stirrup) concentrate the eardrums vibrations on cochleas oval window

cochlea

coiled, boney fluid fillled tube of inner ear where transduction of sound waves into nerural impulses

inner ear

contains semisircular canals and cochlea, which includes the receptors that transduce sound energy into neural impulses. also contains the vestibular sacs

place theory

maintains that place of mazimum vibration along cochlea ,membrane is basis of pitch determination

frq theory

hearing presumes the rate or frq of nerve impulses in auditory nerve that matches frq of a tone enabling us to sense it pitch

pheromones

is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

kinesthesis

the ability to feel movements of the limbs and . our vestibular sense relies on semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear to sense our head, thus our whole bodys position and movement, letting us maintain our balance

pinna

the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear

colorblindness

happens to 1/50 ppl, ussually male becuase the defect is genetically sex linked.

auditory cortex

region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. It is located on the temporal lobe, and performs the basics of hearing; pitch and volume.

basilar membranes

incoming vibrations cause the cochleas membrane (oval window to vibrate, jostling the fluid that fills the tube, motion causes rupples in the basilar membrane which is lined with hair cells. rippling of basilar membrene bends these hair cells triggering an impulse

relative motion

as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move. the nearer the object is to you, the faster it seems to move. objects beyond fixation point appear to move with you and the farther away the object is the faster they move. brain uses these cues to help determine the objects distance

closure

our method of grouping we fill in gaps to create a complete whole object.

proximity

our method of grouping where we group nearby figures together

similiarity

our method of grouping where we group figures that are similar to each other

after image illusion

ex: when you stare at a green square for a while then look at a pice of paper, you see red. green's opponent color. developed by hering.

shape constancy

this allows us to percieve the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images of them change

interposition

if one object partially blocks our view of another, we percieve it as closer

psychokinesis

mind over matter, claims that you can levitate a table etc.

telepathy

mind to mind communication

prosopagnosia

disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact.

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in a cocktail party effect

bipolar cells

eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells

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