Health Assessment Final: Chat 26 & 29

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Mons pubis:

A round firm pad of adipose tissue covering the symphysis pubis.

Labia Majora:

Two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds (of adipose tissues) which extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.

Skene's glands:

Glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening.

Hymen:

A fold of mucous membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.

Bartholin's glands:

Two glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina.

Ectopic pregnancy:

The pregnancy implants outside the uterine cavity , usually in the fallopian tubes.

Ovaries:

Female hormones and Ova (eggs) develop here.

Menopause:

The cessation of menses, usually preceeded by 1 to 2 years of decline in ovarian function and menses gradually becoming farther apart and producing lighter flow.

Menorrhagia:

Heavy menses.

Gravida:

Number of pregnancies

Para:

Number of biths

Abortion:

Interruped pregnancies, including elective abortions and spontaneous miscarriages.

Pediculosis pubis:

Crab lice

Syphilitic Chancre:

Begins as small, solitary papule that erodes to superficial ulcer ulcer w/yellowish serous discharge.

Urethral caruncle:

Benign, distal urethral lesions that are most commonly found in postmenopausal women.

Cystocele:

Occurs when the wall between a woman's bladder and her vagina weakens and allows the bladder to droop into the vagina.

Rectocele:

Occurs when the thin wall of fibrous tissue (fascia) separating the rectum from the vagina becomes weakened, allowing the front wall of the rectum to bulge into the vagina.

Uterine Prolapse:

Occurs when pelvic floor muscles and ligaments stretch and weaken, providing inadequate support for the uterus. The uterus then descends into the vaginal canal.

Enterocystocele:

Hernia of the bladder or intesting wall.

Chadwick's sign:

Cyanosis (bluish discoloration) of the cervix.

Erosion:

Cervical lips inflamed and eroded.

DES(Diethylstilbestrol Syndrome):

This is a synthetic estrogen drug that is used to treat a number of hormonal conditions. However, it causes problems in developing fetuses and should not be taken during pregnancy. From about 1938 to 1971, DES was given to pregnant women because it was thought to prevent miscarriage. Children of women who took the drug during pregnancy are at risk for certain health problems.

Atrophic Vaginitis:

Inflammation of the vagina due to thinning tissue and decreased lubrication. It is related to reduced estrogen levels.

Candidiasis:

a fungal infection, also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

Chlamydia:

a disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most commonly sexually transmitted in the US.
Symptoms include abdominal pain, burning on urination, painful intercourse, vaginal discharge or bleeding after intercourse.

Myomas:

Uterine fibroids are tumors that grow from the wall of the uterus. The wall of the uterus is made of muscle tissue, so a fibroid is a tumor made of muscle tissue. The fibroids start off very small, actually from one cell, and generally grow slowly over years before they cause any problems. Most fibroids are benign; malignant fibroids are rare. The cause of fibroids is unknown, although it is known that fibroids have a tendency to run in families. Fibroids are very common, with an estimated 50% of women having them. Fibroids can be diagnosed by pelvic examination or by ultrasound. Fibroids do not have to be removed unless they are causing symptoms such as heavy periods, irregular bleeding, or severe cramps with periods.

Endometriosis:

A painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, bowel or the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond your pelvic region.

Follicles:

The basic units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They contain a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg). These structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a single competent oocyte in humans.

Corpus luteum:

Made up of remaining follicles which makes up hormones, such as progesterone.

Blastocyst:

The fertilized ovum

Placenta:

The specialized layer of cells around the blastocyst and begins to produce progesterone around 7 weeks.

Lenght of pregnancy:

280 days, 40 weeks, 10 lunar months, 9 calendar months

First trimester:

First 12 weeks of pregnancy.

Second trimester:

Weeks 13 -27 of pregnancy

Third trimester:

Weeks 28-40 of pregnancy

Primigravida:

A woman who is pregnant for the first time.

Primipara:

A woman who has delivered her first child; a woman who has had one pregnancy that resulted in one or more viable young

Multigravida:

A pregnant woman who has previously carried a fetus to the point of viability.

Multipara:

A woman who has had 2 or more pregnancies resulting in potentially viable offspring.

G:

Abbreviation for gravida.

PT:

Abbreviation for preterm deliveries

A:

Abbreviation for abortion.

L:

Abbreviation for living children.

Presumptive signs:

Amenorrhea, breast tenderness, nausea, fatigue and increased urinary frequency.

Probable signs:

Signs detected by examiner, such as an enlarged uterus.

Positive signs:

Direct evidence of fetus, such as auscultation of fetal heart tones.

hCG:

Can be detected in the urine after implantation, approximately 8-11 days after conception.

Hegar's sign:

Uterus softens, flexs easily over the cervix, and becomes globular in shape.

Goodell's sign:

Cervix softens.

Chadwick's sign:

Cervix becomes bluish in color.

First trimester changes:

Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, uterus changes in size and shape, blood pressure decreases at week 7, and FHT's can be heard between 9-12 wks.

Second trimester changes:

Fetal movement quickens, breasts enlarge, colostrum expressed from nipples, Linea nigra, striae gravidarum, bp decreases, GI changes, gingivitis, FHT's more easily heard.

Third trimester changes:

Blood volume peaks w/45% more, increased pulse rate, edema of lower extremities, lordosis, engagement, and mucous plug expelled.

EDD:

Expected date of delivery.

Nagele's Rule:

First day of last normal menstrual period, add 7 day and subtract 3 months.

Weight gain:

Underweight-28-40 lbs
Normal weight-25-35 lbs
Overweight-15-25 lbs

Proteinuria:

The presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine

Preterm Labor:

Labor occurring after 20 weeks and before completion of 37 weeks.

Polyhydramnios:

A medical condition describing an excess of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac.

Hyperemesis gravidarum:

A severe form of morning sickness, with "unrelenting, excessive pregnancy-related nausea and/or vomiting that prevents adequate intake of food and fluids."

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