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structuralism

even very complex experiments can be broken down into component parts of sensations and feeling

psychology

science of behavior and mental processes

biological perspective

emphasizes studying the physical bases of human and animal behavior

psychodynamic perspective

emphasizes importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and inter-personal relationships

behavioral perspective

perspective of psychology which says that psychology should focus on observable behaviors

humanistic perspective

focuses on the modivation of people to grow psychologically

cognitive perspective

psychology experienced a return to the study of mental processes influence behavior

cross-cultural perspective

study of diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries

social loafing

people work harder alone than when with a group

social psychology

the study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each other

attribution theory

how we explain someones behavior

fundamental attribution error

the tendency of viewers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate impact of personal disposition

attitudes

feelings based on beliefs

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

a tendency for people who agree to a small action to comply later to a larger one

cognitive dissonance theory

we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent

chameleon effect

contagious behavior (ex. yawning, sneezing, looking up)

mood linkage

we are happier when around happier people

conformity

adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a groups standards

Solomon Asch

created idea of conformity (did experiment with college students sitting around a table and answering a question wrongly based on a groups ideas)

normative social influence

influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval /avoid disapproval

informational social influence

ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality

Stanley Milgrim

tested to see about commands and how people respond to it (the shock experiment)

social facilitiation

some people do better when performing in front of an audience

deindividuation

less self-conscious/self-restraint when in a group situation

group-polarization

occurs when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor/oppose

groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

prejudice

attitude toward a group-usually cultural,ethnic, or gender

stereotypes

a generalized belief about a group of people

discrimination

negative behavior toward a group

ingroup

us, our group

outgroup

excluding "them"

ingroup bias

favoring of ones own group

scapegoat theory

prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone else to blame

just-world phenomenon

tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve, and deserve what they get

social traps

a situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing their self-interest became caught in destructive behavior

mirror-image perceptions

as we see "them", as untrustworthy and evil intentioned- so "they" see us that way (vicious circle)

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

bystander effect

any bystander less likely to give aid to someone if lots of others are present

social exchange theory

our social behavior is an exchange process, aim to max benefits and minimize costs

recriprocity norm

expectation that we should return help to not harm those who help us

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent on them

Philip Zimbardo

did the Stanford Prison experiment

stanford prison experiment

people were assigned to be guards and prisoners- people had to play their role, and there was no rules, and people by the end of the first day WERE their role

evolutionary perspective

application of the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes and phenomena

Edward Titchener

created idea of structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt

opened the first psychology lab

William James

created idea of functionalism

Functionalism

behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt

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