Medical Terminology Study Guide

191 terms by cassie_renda 

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midsagittal (median)

right and left halves

coronal (frontal)

Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

Transverse (horizontal)

Superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects

What is in the cranial cavity which is located in the dorsal?

brain

What is located in the spinal cavity which is located in the dorsal?

spinal cord

What is located in the thoracic cavity which is located in the ventral part?

heart, lungs, and associated structures

What is located in the abdominopelvic cavity which is located in the ventral part?

Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures

What is located in the Right Upper Quadrant?

Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines, liver

What is located in the Left Upper Quadrant?

Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

What is located in the Right Lower Quadrant?

Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter

What is located in the Left Lower Quadrant?

Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

Abduction

movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts

adduction

movement toward the midsagittal plane of the body

medial

pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

lateral

pertaining to one side

superior

toward the head or upper portion of a structure

inferior

away from the head, or twoard the tail or lower part of a structure

proximal

nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachent to the body

distal

further from the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body

anterior (ventral)

front of the body

posterior (dorsal)

back of the body

parietal

pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

visceral

pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

prone

lying on the abdomen, face down

supine

lying horizontally on the back, face up

inversion

turning inward or inside out

eversion

turning outward

palmar

pertaining to the palm of the hand

plantar

pertaining to the sole of the foot

superficial

toward the surface of the body (external)

deep

away from the surface of the body (internal)

sign

objective indicators that are observable

a palpable mass and tissue redness are examples of ________

signs

symptom

subjective and is experienced only by the patient

dizziness, pain, and malaise are examples of _______

symptoms

Layers of the skin:

epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer

onych/o, Ungu/o

nail

onych/o/malacia

softening of the nail

ungu/al

pertaining to the nails

ecchymosis

bruise

erythema

redness of the skin

eschar

damaged tissue following a severe burn

pallor

unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin

xeroderma

chronic skin condition characterized by dryness and roughness and is a mild form of ichthyosis

adip/o, lip/o, steat/o

fat

adip/osis

abnormal condition of fat

lip/o/cele

hernia containing fat

steat/itis

inflammation of fatty tissue

first degree burn

least serious type, injure only the epidermis. May or may not have blisters.

second degree burn

deep burns that damage both the epidermis and part of the dermis. Blisters.

third degree burn

epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch

Cheil/o/plasty

Surgical repair of the lips

Labi/o/plasty

Surgical repair of the lips

gingiv/o/plasty

surgical repair of the gums

cheil/ectomy

excision of lip tissue

labi/ectomy

excision of lip tissue

gingivectomy

excision of gum tissue

gastr/o/dynia

pain in the stomach

gastr/algia

pain in the stomach

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

oritis

inflammation of the mouth

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

cholecyst/ectomy

excision of the gallbladder

cholecyst/o/tomy

incision of the gallbladder

cholecyst/o/pathy

any disease of the gallbladder

inguinal hernia

develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs

strangulated hernia

occurs when the blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure. This will lead to necrosis when gangrene

umbilical hernia

protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel. It occurs more commonly in obese women and among those who have had several pregnancies

hiatal hernia

lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening in the diaphragm into the thorax

sept/o/plasty

surgical repair of the septum

rhin/o/plasty

surgical repair of the nose

peri/tonsill/ar

pertaining to the area surrounding the tonsils

atelectasis

partial or complete collapse of the lung

hemoptysis

spits up blood

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

eupnea

normal breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

tachypnea

fast breathing

orthopnea

difficulty breathing unless standing or sitting

aort/o

aorta

aort/o/stenosis

narrowing of the aorta

arteri/o

artery

arteri/o/rrhexis

rupture of an artery

angi/o

vessel

angi/o/plasty

surgical repair of a vessel

vascul/o

vessel

vascul/itis

inflammation of (blood) vessels

hemangi/o

blood vessel

hemangi/oma

tumor of blood vessels

arteries carry blood

from the heart

veins carry blood

to the heart

arteries have ________ blood

oxygenated

veins have ________ blood

deoxygenated

hypertension

high blood pressure, above 140/90

hypotension

low blood pressure, below 120/80

normal blood pressure

120/80

systolic pressure

the 120 in 120/80

diastolic pressure

the 80 in 120/80

electr/o/cardi/o/gram

the record of the electrical activity of the heart

electr/o/cardi/o/graph

the machine that records the electrical activity of the heart

electr/o/cardi/o/graphy

the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart

wrist bones

carpals

palm bones

metacarpals

fingers, toe bones

phalanges

ankle bones

tarsals

between the ankles and toe bones

metatarsals

dactyl/o

fingers and toes

myel/o

spinal cord; bone marrow

ankylosis

stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

crepitation

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

subluxation

partial or incomplete dislocation

claudication

lameness, limping

adduction

moves closer to the midline

abduction

moves away from the midline

flexion

decreases the angle of a joint

extension

increases the angle of a joint

rotation

moves a bone around its own axis

pronation

turns the palm down

supination

turns the palm up

inversion

moves the sole of the foot inward

eversion

moves the sole of the foot outward

dorsiflexion

elevates the foot

plantar flexion

lowers the foot (points the toes)

oste/o

bone

arthr/o

joint

anuria

absence of urine

bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in the urine

dysuria

painful or difficulty urinating

enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine- incontinence

frequency

need to urinate frequently

hematuria

blood in the urine

hesitancy

difficulty starting to urinate

nocturia

urinating excessively at night

oliguria

diminished amount of urine

polyuria

excessive urine

cystolithiasis

bladder stones

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones

renolithiasis

kidney stones

cholecystolithiasis

stones in the gallbladder

lithiasis

abnormal condition of stones or caliculi

anorchidism

absence of one or both testes

nephropexy

procedure to correct a floating or dropped kidney

aspermia

failure to form or ejaculate sperm

KUB

kidneys, ureter, and bladder radiography, radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic caity and identify abnormalities of the urinary system

hydrocele

term associated with the collection of fluid in the testes

primigravida

woman pregnant for the first time

multigravida

woman who has been pregnant more than once

primipara

woman who has given birth to one viable infant

multipara

woman who has delivered more than one viable infant

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