When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:
Does not take into account cultural differences
Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because it:
Functions of a family
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are:
Richard, who is being raised by his single mom
This child is at the greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult:
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all a part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:
The preoperational stage
The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of preconventional morality is:
Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with their:
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8 yr old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a:
Genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on some abilities
Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan's math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:
In the U.S., which ethnic group is most likely to accept and support single parents?
A Florida man killed a doctor who performs abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he would be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of:
Factors related to resilience in at-risk children
Self-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structure/rules within the household are all:
Teasing and name-calling from her classmates
Ellie is a 10 year old and well into puberty. She will probably experience:
Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards, she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from:
The family sharing meals together
This behavior seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder:
Of the following parts of the brain, this is the last to fully mature in adolescence:
The invincibility fable
16 yr old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. He is demonstrating:
Her belief in an imaginary audience
Marsha says, "There is no ways I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Martha is demonstrating:
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizen's health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:
This refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, then make general conclusions:
Culture and social context
This has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening:
This is due to hormonal shifts
Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should realize that:
Genes, body fat/nutrition, and stress
Besides gender, the three main factors that affect the timing of puberty are:
Secondary sex characteristics
These are the characteristics that are not directly related to reproduction:
The pattern in which a person limits sexual activity to one steady partner at a time is called:
Suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible, as Martha was.
Martha was a 21 yr old girl living in the US in the early 1800s. Suzanne is a 21 yr old girl living in the US in 2008. What is a primary developmental difference between these two young women?
While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, this factor more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity:
The diathesis-stress model
Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby was raised by his grandparents. Now, at age 22, Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by this developmental concept:
If a risky business investment fails, emerging adults are less likely to be devastated than older investors. This is true statement about:
Personality is both continuous and discontinuous
If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?
They are more likely to divorce if they marry
What is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?
Intimacy vs. Isolated
According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve what crisis?
Not only do those with college degrees on average have higher incomes, but college also correlates with better:
Today's emerging adults have _____ sexual partners and _____ babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.
Only okay if you plan to get married
If you were to ask a 22 year old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is:
Attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically
Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires
Gender identity refers to _____, while sexual orientation refers to _____.
Part of a warm, supportive relationship
Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:
Mikhael's family will depend on him to mediate between the family's old and new cultures
Mikhael, who is 15, has just moved to the United STates with his parents from Ukraine. Mikhael's English skills are good, but his parents speak no English at all. Which of the following likely to be true of Mikhael and his family?
Open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the United States
A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found that .5 percent of American high school students to identify themselves as homosexual, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 percent of students said that they were attracted to others of the same sex. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?
The parent's answers grossly underestimate their daughter's behaviors
You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12 year old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12 year old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?
Teenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.
According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that:
Less self-confidant than they were as children
Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are:
Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?
Parents who forbid smoking and drink responsibly as role models
One of the best ways to reduce drug use in adolescence is:
A truth regarding the self-esteem of emerging adults
In spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face, their self-esteem is higher than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood. This statement is:
poor lifestyle choices, inevitable primary aging, and include changes in skin, hair, and fat distribution
Changes in appearance that occur in middle adulthood include factors such as:
Reproduction becomes less likely
This is true of the sexual-reproductive system fro both sexes during adulthood:
Almost half of pregnancies result in low-birthweight twin or triplets
A common outcome when in vitro fertilization is used to assist in reproduction in the U.S. is:
A researcher is compiling data on the incidence of all types of diseases. This data reflects:
Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of a "physical, mental, or emotional condition" is called:
Peaks around age 18, remains stable until the mid-20s, and declines thereafter
Early studies of adult intelligence led researchers to the conclusion that intelligence in adulthood:
When developmentalists use this term, they usually mean a person who is significantly better than others at performing a certain task:
Factors that reduce the severity of menopause
Eating a healthful diet that is high in calcium, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking are all:
He is disabled and has a high level of vitality
Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?
dependents; self-supporting individuals
A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number _____ with the number of _____.
Stagnation and personal impoverishment
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
They do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that:
A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an:
Improve since they have more time to spend together
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:
The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:
A persona who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension of :
In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to:
The patient's daughter
The person most likely to take care of an older individual with a dementia is:
Shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus
A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed to:
Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it.Their grandparenting style is:
Happier in their marriages
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are:
At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates:
Reduced efficiency of the digestive system
The chief reason the elderly have difficulty in getting enough nutrients is:
One of the functions of this type of memory is the temporary storage of information for conscious use:
Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic
The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:
Is quite happy and enjoying her life
Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in late adulthood, she:
Which theory claims that social forces limit individual choice and direct life, especially in late adulthood?