Developmental Psychology Final (pt. 2)

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This set covers quizzes 8-14 in Dr. Johnson's Developmental Psychology class at John Brown University.

Social cognition

When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:

Kohlberg

This guy measured morality by analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong.

Mock and ridicule their victim

Girls who bully usually:

Does not take into account cultural differences

Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because it:

Functions of a family

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are:

Repeated

The key word in the definition of bullying is:

During the school years

Self-esteem typically decreases when?

Richard, who is being raised by his single mom

This child is at the greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult:

Industry

Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all a part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:

The preoperational stage

The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of preconventional morality is:

Nuclear family

Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with their:

Withdrawn-rejected child

Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8 yr old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a:

Genes may have a stronger effect than familial environment on some abilities

Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan's math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:

African Americans

In the U.S., which ethnic group is most likely to accept and support single parents?

Postconventional morality

A Florida man killed a doctor who performs abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he would be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of:

Factors related to resilience in at-risk children

Self-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structure/rules within the household are all:

A spurt of height

The first outward sign of puberty in a typical girl is:

Testosterone

For males, the hormone that produces the most sexual changes is:

Rebecca, who is of African descent

This girl will be most likely to experience menarche first:

Teasing and name-calling from her classmates

Ellie is a 10 year old and well into puberty. She will probably experience:

Bulimia nervosa

Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards, she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from:

The family sharing meals together

This behavior seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder:

The uterus and testes begin to grow

Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:

Prefrontal cortex

Of the following parts of the brain, this is the last to fully mature in adolescence:

The invincibility fable

16 yr old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. He is demonstrating:

Her belief in an imaginary audience

Marsha says, "There is no ways I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Martha is demonstrating:

Deductive reasoning

Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizen's health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:

Inductive reasoning

This refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, then make general conclusions:

Culture and social context

This has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening:

This is due to hormonal shifts

Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should realize that:

Genes, body fat/nutrition, and stress

Besides gender, the three main factors that affect the timing of puberty are:

Secondary sex characteristics

These are the characteristics that are not directly related to reproduction:

Serial monogamy

The pattern in which a person limits sexual activity to one steady partner at a time is called:

Suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible, as Martha was.

Martha was a 21 yr old girl living in the US in the early 1800s. Suzanne is a 21 yr old girl living in the US in 2008. What is a primary developmental difference between these two young women?

Social context

While nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, this factor more strongly influences birth rates and sexual activity:

2

How many times more likely are women than men to suffer from depression?

The diathesis-stress model

Jacoby's mother had schizophrenia, and so Jacoby was raised by his grandparents. Now, at age 22, Jacoby is experiencing severe stress due to his new job and his grandfather's unexpected death. He is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia. The manifestation of these symptoms is best explained by this developmental concept:

20 years of age

Sex hormone production peaks at around:

Relationship with self

During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily in:

Edgework

If a risky business investment fails, emerging adults are less likely to be devastated than older investors. This is true statement about:

Personality is both continuous and discontinuous

If someone were to ask you whether or not an individual's personality remains stable from childhood through adulthood, how would you answer them?

They are more likely to divorce if they marry

What is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?

Intimacy vs. Isolated

According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve what crisis?

Health

Not only do those with college degrees on average have higher incomes, but college also correlates with better:

More; fewer

Today's emerging adults have _____ sexual partners and _____ babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.

18-24 year olds

This age group reports the lowest rates of chronic illness:

Only okay if you plan to get married

If you were to ask a 22 year old college student how she feels about premarital sex, and she agrees with the majority, she would say that premarital sex is:

reflective; hypothetical

Thinking may become more _____ and _____ with each year of college.

Form a coherent identity

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:

Achievement

The ultimate psychosocial goal, according to Erikson is:

Attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically

Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires

Gender identity refers to _____, while sexual orientation refers to _____.

Early adolescence

In the U.S., parent-child conflict peaks in:

Part of a warm, supportive relationship

Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:

Mikhael's family will depend on him to mediate between the family's old and new cultures

Mikhael, who is 15, has just moved to the United STates with his parents from Ukraine. Mikhael's English skills are good, but his parents speak no English at all. Which of the following likely to be true of Mikhael and his family?

Open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the United States

A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found that .5 percent of American high school students to identify themselves as homosexual, while a survey in Holland found that 8.5 percent of students said that they were attracted to others of the same sex. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statistical difference?

The parent's answers grossly underestimate their daughter's behaviors

You are a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. You ask 12 year old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. You then ask their parents if their 12 year old daughters had engaged in these behaviors. If your results are similar to other surveys, what would you find?

Teenagers in the United States use less contraception than those in other countries.

According to international statistics, teenagers in the United States have many more births than teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is that:

Less self-confidant than they were as children

Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are:

Girls than in boys

Suicidal ideation is more common in:

Completed suicide

Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

Parents who forbid smoking and drink responsibly as role models

One of the best ways to reduce drug use in adolescence is:

A diagnosable psychiatric disorder

The most common risk factor for suicide in general is:

In the 15-24 and over 65 age groups

In the US, suicide rates spike:

The view that one is noticed by everyone

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to:

A truth regarding the self-esteem of emerging adults

In spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face, their self-esteem is higher than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood. This statement is:

poor lifestyle choices, inevitable primary aging, and include changes in skin, hair, and fat distribution

Changes in appearance that occur in middle adulthood include factors such as:

Reproduction becomes less likely

This is true of the sexual-reproductive system fro both sexes during adulthood:

Almost half of pregnancies result in low-birthweight twin or triplets

A common outcome when in vitro fertilization is used to assist in reproduction in the U.S. is:

51 years

The average age of menopause is about:

Norma, who just had a hysterectomy

Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?

Moderate use of alcohol may increase longevity

Research studies on alcohol use have shown that:

Morbidity

A researcher is compiling data on the incidence of all types of diseases. This data reflects:

Disability

Difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of a "physical, mental, or emotional condition" is called:

Vitality

The measure of health most important to the quality of life is:

Peaks around age 18, remains stable until the mid-20s, and declines thereafter

Early studies of adult intelligence led researchers to the conclusion that intelligence in adulthood:

The Flynn effect

Refers to the rise in average IQ over the generations:

Fluid intelligence

Includes the speed of processing mathematical information:

Estrogen or estrogen and progesterone

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) involves taking:

Women age more slowly

Gender differences in senescence indicate that:

Expert

When developmentalists use this term, they usually mean a person who is significantly better than others at performing a certain task:

Factors that reduce the severity of menopause

Eating a healthful diet that is high in calcium, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking are all:

He is disabled and has a high level of vitality

Wendell has bone cancer and must use a wheelchair to accomplish his daily activities. He feels healthy and energetic and spends his days in a clown costume at the local children's hospital. Which of the following is true for Wendell?

A middle-aged mother

In a typical family, the "kinkeeper" is most likely to be:

A compression of morbidity

Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to as:

Improves with age

Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:

Ageism

Judging people on the basis of their chronological age

dependents; self-supporting individuals

A dependency ratio is calculated by comparing the number _____ with the number of _____.

Stagnation and personal impoverishment

According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:

A daughter-in-law

Who is most likely to feel burdened by elder care?

They do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly

The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that:

Ecological niche

A particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an:

Not very accurate

The notion of the sandwich generation is:

Developmental history

The midlife crisis might accurately be described as a crisis of:

Improve since they have more time to spend together

Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. The quality of their marriage should:

Familism

The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:

Openness

A persona who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension of :

Social clock

In the U.S., this allows for greater diversity than in the past:

Assert themselves

In some cultures, as they grow older, men find it easier to express emotions and women tend to:

The patient's daughter

The person most likely to take care of an older individual with a dementia is:

Activity theory

The antithesis of disengagement theory is:

Absentmindedness about recent events

The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by:

Shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus

A marked decrease in motor reaction time and brain processing in older adults may be attributed to:

Enjoy their independence, choosing not to remarry

After losing a spouse, older women typically:

Companionate

Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it.Their grandparenting style is:

Happier in their marriages

Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are:

Continuity theory

At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates:

Bathing

One of the ADLs:

Want to retire as soon as they are eligible

Recent research has indicated that most older adults:

Adult children

Most elder abuse is committed by:

Reduced efficiency of the digestive system

The chief reason the elderly have difficulty in getting enough nutrients is:

Working memory

One of the functions of this type of memory is the temporary storage of information for conscious use:

Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic

The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:

Is quite happy and enjoying her life

Mrs. Calderi is 70 years old and, as a typical person in late adulthood, she:

Primary signs of aging

The irreversible changes that occur naturally with time are called:

Stratification theories

Which theory claims that social forces limit individual choice and direct life, especially in late adulthood?

Old

The biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is being:

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