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95 Theses

Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

Council of Trent

an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation

The Inquisition

Church court that punished people suspected of heresy

Line of Demarcation

imaginarry north to south line runnig down the middle of the atlantic and granted spain the west of the line and portugal the east

Treaty of Tordisillas

pope split up world between east and west for Spain and Portugal to conquer: Spain got west, Portugal got east

Council of the Indies

group of royal officials established in 1524 that oversaw the government and enforced laws in Spanish America.

New Laws of the Indies

these laws were created to end the abuse against Native Americans (enslavement). The problem was that Spain was too far away to enforce them

Jamestown Settlement

The first permanent English settlement in North America (1607), was an economic venture by the Virginia Company

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

French and Indian War

a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)

Treaty of Paris

this treaty ended the french and indian war

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

Columbian Exchange

The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas

Spanish Armada

the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties

Edict of Nantes

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants

Versailles

a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris

War of Spanish Succession

This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V

Long Parliament

This Parliament met for 13 years from 1640-1653 and chose not to implement the taxes that Charles II wanted to defend England against the Scots. This was mostly because they agreed with the Scot's negative opinion of Laud's religious changes and disagreed with the king on many issues. This powerful parliament also executed Charles's chief advisory, the Earl of Strafford.

English Civil War

civil war in enlgand fought between Roundheads and Cavaliers

The Commonwealth

Cromwell's new government that he runs where there is no king-a republic with no monarch

The Glorious Revolution

The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's William and Mary

The English Bill of Rights

made during the "glorious revolution" under William and Mary. This limited the power of the monarchy and guaranteed the privileges of the high class. This made sure that the monarchy ruled by the consent of parliament which now had to be called every three years. By doing so, it prevented the monarchy from gaining too much power and ruling in a way disagreeable to the people of England.

Thirty Years War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

War of Austrian Succession

This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state

St. Petersburg

Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden

Partition of Poland

This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)

Tennis Court Oath

vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written

Storming the Bastille

July 14, 1789 when mob and some of the king's soldiers attacked the Bastille which was a jail where the gun powder was kept the effect was the people getting left out, only 7 but the impact was great and all the guards got killed

National Guard

lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries

Paris Commune

The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government

July 14, 1789

Storming of the Bastille

August 4, 1789

date that liberal nobles and clerics began renouncing privileges, ultimately resulting in equal laws for French citizens

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)

Women March on Versailles

Over six thousand women demanding to see the king. They marched from Paris to Versailles and convinced the king to move to Paris.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

passed July 12, 1790 during the French Revolution, lowered the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government

Constitution of 1791

Said that all 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey

Declaration of Pilnitz

the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen

Legilative Assembly

French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.

Jacobins

Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre

National Convention

the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform

Constitution of 1792

written by national convention; abolished monarchy in the late 18th century

Committee of Public Safety

The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.

Reign of Terror

the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed

Constitution of 1795

Constitution created by the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory

Directory

The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France.

Consulate

diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul

Concordat of 1801

This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power

Napoleonic Code

Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family or inherited monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.

Battle of Trafalgar (1805)

This was a war under Napoleon; the French lost to the British

Continental System

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.

Battle of Austerlitz (1805)

This massive victory in 1805 by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France, battle that took place in the heart of Europe, Napoleon defeated a combined force of Russia, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary making him the master of Europe

Battle of Wagram (1809)

For the 4th time Austria went into war with Napoleon wanting to get back some territory. Napoleon triumphed again and a peace agreement between them made Austria surrender lands

The Grand Army

Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's Russian compaign.

Battle of the Nations (Leipzig) (1813)

While Britain forces under Duke of Wellington push into France through Spain, a combined Russia, Prussian, and Austrian force enter eastern France and Napoleon was exiled

Battle of Waterloo(1815)

This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from exile that ended his reign as French ruler

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

Quadruple Alliance

This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era

Concert of Europe

Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.

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