Population, the Environment, and Social Change

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DEMOGRAPHY

the study of the current state and change over time in size, distribution, and composition of human populations.

CENSUS

a head count of the entire population of a country, usually done at regular intervals.

IMMIGRATION

migration into a society from outside

EMIGRATION

the departure of people from a society

CRUDE BIRTHRATE

the # of babies born each year for every 1000 members of the population. OR The # of births divided by the total pop. multiplied by 1000
CBR= # of births/total pop. x 1000

CRUDE DEATH RATE

the # of deaths each year per 1000 people OR the # of deaths divided by the total pop. times 1000
CDR=# of deaths/total pop x 1000

INFANT MORTALITY RATE

the # of deaths per year of infants less than one year old for every 1000 live births.

LIFE EXPECTANCY

the average # of years a member of the group can expect to live.

SEX RATIO

the number of males per 100 females OR the # of males divided by the # of females times 100.
SR=# of males/# of females x 100

AGE-SEX PYRAMID

represents the age and gender structure of a society.

COHORT

consists of all the persons born w/in a given period.

MALTHUSIAN THEORY

the idea that a pop.tends to grow faster than the subsistence needed to sustain it.

GLOBAL WARMING

the systematic increase in worldwide surface temperatures.

URBANIZATION

the process by which a community acquires the characteristics of city life and the "urban" end of the rural-urban continuum.

GEORGE SIMMEL

argued that urban living had profound social psychological effects on the individual.

LOUIS WIRTH

focused on Chicago in the 1930s. Argued that the city was a center of distant, cold interpersonal interaction, and as a result the urban dweller experienced alienation, loneliness, powerlessness.

POPULATION DENSITY

the total # of people per unit area, usually per square mile.

GREENHOUSE EFFECT

a rise in the earth's surface temp. caused by heat trapped by excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; global warming

ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM

consists of the dumping of toxic wastes w/ disproportionate frequency at or very near areas with high concentrations of minorities.

SOCIAL CHANGE

the alteration of social interactions, institutions, stratification systems, and elements of culture over time.

MICROCHANGES

subtle alterations in the day-to-day interactions between people.

MACROCHANGES

gradual transformations that occur on a broad scale and affect many aspects of society.

WILLIAM F. OGBURN

coined term cultural lag; when various parts of a society do not at all change at the same rate; some parts lag behind others.

HERBERT SPENCER AND EMILE DURKHEIM

both argued that as societies move throughout history, they become more complex.

KARL MARX

the founder of the conflict theory.

CYCLICAL THEORIES

the idea that societies go through a "life cycle.

ARNOLD J. TOYNBEE

argues that societies are born, mature, decay, and sometimes die.

PITRIM SOROKIN

argued that societies proceed through three phases or cycles. Idealistic culture, ideational culture, sensate culture.

GLOBALIZATION

the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of numerous societies around the world.

MODERNIZATION THEORY

states that global development is a worldwide process including all societies affected by technological change.

DEPENDENCY THEORY

maintains the highly industrialized nations tend to imprison developing nations in dependent relationships rather than spurring the upward mobility of developing nations with transfers of technology and business acumen.

MODERNIZATION

a process of social and cultural change initiated by industrialization and division of labor.

FERDINAND TONNIES

viewed the process of modernization as a progressive loss of gemeinschaft (German for community)

REVOLUTION

the overthrow of state or the total transformation of a central state institutions.

CULTURAL DIFFUSION

the transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another.

RALPH LINTON

said much of what many people regard as "American" came from other lands.

COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR

behavior that occurs when the usual conventions are suspended and people collectively establish new norms of behavior in response to an emerging situation.

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

led by groups that act with some continuity and organization to promote or resist change in society.

PERSONAL CHANGE MOVEMENTS

aim to change the individual.

SOCIAL/POLITICAL CHANGE MOVEMENTS

aim to change some aspect of society.

REFORMIST MOVEMENTS

seek change through legal or other mainstream political means, typically through with/in existing institutions.

REACTIONARY MOVEMENTS

are organized to resist change or to reinstate an earlier social order that participants perceive to be better, and they are reacting against contemporary changes in society.

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION THEORY

an explanation of the development of social movements that focuses on how movements gain momentum by successfully gathering resources, competing with other movements, and mobilizing the resources available to them.

POLITICAL PROCESS THEORY

posits that movements achieve success by exploiting a combination of internal factors, such as the ability of organizations to mobilize resources, and external factors, such as changes occurring in the society.

FRAMES

specific schemes of interpretation that allow people to perceive, identify, and label events w/in their lives that can become the basis for collective action.

SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORY

conceptually links culture, ideology, and identity to explain how new identities are forged w/in social movements.

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