fundamentals

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.Net

Microsoft's set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices.

4GL

Fourth-generation language. Nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database.

Active X

Set of object-oriented technologies by Microsoft that allows components on a network to communicate with one another.

Active X control

A small program that runs on your computer instead of the server.

Ada

Programming language derived from Pascal, developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, named after Augusta Ada Lovelace Byron, thought to be the first female computer programmer.

Ajax

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response to user requests.

ALGOL

ALGOrithmic Language. The first structured procedural programming language.

APL

A Programming Language. Scientific language designed to manipulate tables of numbers.

applet

Interpreted program that runs on a client, but is compiled.

application generator

Program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality.

assembly language

Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.

ATOM

XML application that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.

BASIC

Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Programming language developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz as a simple, interactive problem-solving language.

beta

Program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented.

C

Programming language developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories used for business and scientific applications.

C#

Object-oriented programming language based on C++ developed primarily by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft.

C++

Object-oriented programming language developed at Bell Laboratories that is an extension of the C programming language.

COBOL

COmmon Business-Oriented Language. Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the 1960's

code review

Process of programmers, quality control testers, and/or peers reviewing code in order to locate and fix errors so that the final programs work correctly.

coding

Translating a solution algorithm into a programming language and then typing the programming language code into the computer.

control structure

Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. Also called a construct.

counter

Web site element that tracks the number of visitors to a Web site.

Delphi

Powerful visual programming tool that is ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web application development.

Director

Multimedia authoring program with powerful features that allow programmers to create highly interactive multimedia applications.

Dreamweaver

Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that allows Web developers to create, maintain, and manage professional Web sites.

dynamic HTML (DHTML)

Type of HTML that allows Web developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in a Web page.

Expression Web

Microsoft's Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to create professional, dynamic, interactive Web sites.

F#

Programming language included with Visual Studio 2010 that combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language.

Flash

Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that enables Web developers to combine interactive content with text, graphics, audio, and video.

flowchart

Graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm. Also called a program flowchart.

flowcharting software

Software used by programmers to help develop flowcharts.

Forth

Programming language similar to C, used for small computerized devices.

FORTRAN

FORmula TRANslator. One of the first high-level programming languages used for scientific applications.

hierarchy chart

Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically. Also called a structure chart.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language. Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web.

HyperTalk

Object-oriented programming language developed by Apple to manipulate cards that can contain text, graphics, and sound.

IDE (integrated development environment)

Includes program development tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering program code, a compiler and/or interpreter, and a debugger.

image map

Graphical image that points to one or more Web addresses.

implementation

Process of generating or writing code that translates a program design into a program and, if necessary, creating the user interface.

Java

Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.

JavaScript

Interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic content and interactive elements to a Web page.

LISP

LISt Processing. Programming language used for artificial intelligence applications.

logic error

Flaw in program design that causes inaccurate results.

LOGO

An educational tool used to teach programming and problem-solving to children.

Modula-2

Successor to Pascal programming language used for developing systems software.

multimedia authoring software

Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an interactive application and that often is used for computer-based training and Web-based presentations.

nonprocedural language

Type of programming language in which a programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from files or a database.

object-oriented (OO) design

Design approach in which a programmer packages the data and program (or procedure) into a single unit, an object.

object-oriented programming (OOP) language

Programming language used to implement an object-oriented design.

Pascal

Programming language developed to teach students structured programming concepts, named in honor of Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician who developed one of the earliest calculating machines.

Perl

Practical Extraction and Report Language. Scripting language developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++.

PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. Free, open source scripting language.

PILOT

Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching; programming language used to write computer-aided instruction programs.

PL/I

Programming Language One; business and scientific programming language that combines many features of FORTRAN and COBOL.

PowerBuilder

Powerful program development tool developed by Sybase that is best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications.

procedural language

Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions.

processing form

Web site element that collects data from site visitors, who fill in blank fields and then click a button that sends the information. Often simply called a form.

program development life cycle (PDLC)

Part of the implementation phase of the system development cycle that follows six steps: (1) analyze the requirements, (2) design the solution,(3) validate the design, (4) implement the design, (5) test the solution, and (6) document the solution.

programming language

Set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer.

programming team

A group of programmers that may develop programs during the program development cycle.

Prolog

PROgramming LOGic. Programming language used for development of artificial intelligence applications.

RAD

Rapid application development. Method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed.

Rexx

Restructured Extended Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both professional programmers and nontechnical users.

RPG

Report Program Generator; programming language used to assist businesses in generating reports and to access/update data in databases.

RSS 2.0

Really Simple Syndication; specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails. Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; Rails; RoR.

script

Interpreted program that runs on a client.

servlet

Applet that runs on a server.

SharePoint Designer

Web page authoring program that is part of the Microsoft Office and SharePoint families of products.

Smalltalk

Object-oriented programming language.

source program

Program that contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted to machine language.

SQL

4GL
Query language used with databases that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.

structured design

Program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design. Also called top-down design.

syntax

Set of grammar and rules that specifies how to write instructions for a solution algorithm.

Tcl

Tool Command Language. Interpreted scripting language maintained by Sun Microsystems Laboratories.

third-generation language (3GL)

Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write instructions.

ToolBook

Multimedia authoring program with a graphical user interface that uses an object-oriented approach, so programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects.

VBScript

Visual Basic, Scripting Edition. Subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages.

Visual Basic

Programming language that allows programmers easily to build complex task-oriented object-based programs.

Visual C#

Programming language that combines programming elements of C++ with an easier, rapid development environment.

Visual C++

Programming language based on C++.

visual programming language

Programming language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code.

Visual Studio

Suite of program development tools from Microsoft that assists programmers in building programs for Windows, Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support Microsoft's .NET framework.

Web page authoring software

Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects with interactive content.

WML

Wireless markup language. Subset of XML that allows Web developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers.

XHTML

Extensible HTML; markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile devices, as well as on desktop and notebook computers.

XML

Extensible Markup Language; format for sharing data that allows Web developers to create customized tags, used for developing a single Web site whose content can be formatted to display appropriately on various devices

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