Biology Chapter 3

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In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
A) hydrogen bonds.
B) nonpolar covalent bonds.
C) polar covalent bonds.
D) ionic bonds.
E) van der Waals interactions.

c

The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another
water molecule. What is this attraction called?
A) a covalent bond
B) a hydrogen bond
C) an ionic bond
D) a hydrophilic bond
E) a hydrophobic bond

b

An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
A) C and H in methane (CH4).
B) the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.
C) Na+and Cl- in salt.
D) the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2).
E) Mg+and Cl- in MgCl2.

b

Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because
A) oxygen has a valence of 2.
B) the water molecule is shaped like a tetrahedron.
C) the bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds.
D) the oxygen atom in a water molecule has a weak positive charge.
E) each of the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule is weakly negative in charge.

b

What gives rise to the cohesiveness of water molecules?
A) hydrophobic interactions
B) nonpolar covalent bonds
C) ionic bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) both A and C

d

Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
A) Lakes donʹt freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
B) A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
C) Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off heat due to chemical reactions.
D) Water can act as a solvent.
E) The pH of water remains exactly neutral.

b

Which of the following takes place as an ice cube cools a drink?
A) Molecular collisions in the drink increase.
B) Kinetic energy in the drink decreases.
C) A calorie of heat energy is transferred from the ice to the water of the drink.
D) The specific heat of the water in the drink decreases.
E) Evaporation of the water in the drink increases.

b

Which of the following statements correctly defines a kilocalorie?
A) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°F
B) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C
C) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°F
D) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C
E) the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1,000 g of water by 1°F

d

The nutritional information on a cereal box shows that one serving of a dry cereal has 200 kilocalories. If one
were to burn one serving of the cereal, the amount of heat given off would be sufficient to raise the temperature
of 20 kg of water how many degrees Celsius?
A) 0.2°C
B) 1.0°C
C) 2.0°C
D) 10.0°C
E) 20.0°C

d

Waterʹs high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
A) small size of the water molecules.
B) high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
C) absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
D) fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
E) inability of water to dissipate heat into dry air.

c

Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
A) ionic bonds
B) nonpolar covalent bonds
C) polar covalent bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) covalent bonds

d

Temperature usually increases when water condenses. Which behavior of water is most directly responsible for
this phenomenon?
A) the change in density when it condenses to form a liquid or solid
B) reactions with other atmospheric compounds
C) the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
D) the release of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
E) the high surface tension of water

c

At what temperature is water at its densest?
A) 0°C
B) 4°C
C) 32°C
D) 100°C
E) 212°C

b

Why does ice float in liquid water?
A) The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice.
B) The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
C) Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
D) Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid
water.
E) The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.

d

Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule is most likely
A) positively charged.
B) negatively charged.
C) without charge.
D) hydrophobic.
E) nonpolar.

a

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
A) nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.
B) nonpolar substances that have an attraction for water molecules.
C) polar substances that repel water molecules.
D) polar substances that have an affinity for water.
E) charged molecules that hydrogen-bond with water molecules.

a

One mole (mol) of a substance is
A) 6.02 × 1023 molecules of the substance.
B) 1 g of the substance dissolved in 1 L of solution.
C) the largest amount of the substance that can be dissolved in 1 L of solution.
D) the molecular mass of the substance expressed in grams.
E) A and D only

e

How many molecules of glucose (C6H2O6 molecular mass =180 daltons) would be present in one mole of
glucose?
A) 24
B) 342
C) 23 × 1014
D) 180 × 1014
E) 6.02 × 1023

e

How many molecules of glycerol (C3H8O3) would be present in 1 L of a 1 Mglycerol solution?
A) 1
B) 14
C) 92
D) 1 × 107
E) 6.02 × 1023

e

When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water the component atoms of the NaCl
crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-). In contrast, the atoms of covalently
bonded molecules (e.g., glucose, sucrose, glycerol) do not generally dissociate when placed in aqueous
solution. Which of the following solutions would be expected to contain the greatest number of particles
(molecules or ions)?
A) 1 L of 0.5 M NaCl
B) 1 L of 0.5 M glucose
C) 1 L of 1.0 M NaCl
D) 1 L of 1.0 M glucose
E) C and D will contain equal numbers of particles.

c

The molecular mass of glucose is 180 g. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 1 M
solution of glucose?
A) Dissolve 1 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
B) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
C) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 100 g of water.
D) Dissolve 180 mg (milligrams) of glucose in 1 L of water.
E) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in water, and then add more water until the total volume of the solution is 1 L.

e

The molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6) is 180 g. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to
make a 0.5 M solution of glucose?
A) Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of
solution is 1 L.
B) Dissolve 90 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of
the solution is 1 L.
C) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the total volume of
the solution is 1 L.
D) Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in 1 L of water.
E) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 1 L of water.

b

How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be equal to 1 mol of the molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
A) 29
B) 30
C) 60
D) 150
E) 342

c

How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 1 L of a 0.5 M solution of the
molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
A) 29
B) 30
C) 60
D) 150
E) 342

b

How many grams of the molecule in Figure 3.2 would be required to make 2.5 L of a 1 M solution of the
molecule?
(Carbon = 12, Oxygen = 16, Hydrogen = 1)
A) 29
B) 30
C) 60
D) 150
E) 342

d

A small birthday candle is weighed, then lighted and placed beneath a metal can containing 100 mL of water.
Careful records are kept as the temperature of the water rises. Data from this experiment are shown on the
graph. What amount of heat energy is released in the burning of candle wax? A) 0.5 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
B) 5 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
C) 10 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
D) 20 kilocalories per gram of wax burned
E) 50 kilocalories per gram of wax burned

a

You have a freshly-prepared 0.1M solution of glucose in water. Each liter of this solution contains how many
glucose molecules?
A) 6.02 × 1023
B) 3.01 × 1023
C) 6.02 × 1024
D) 12.04 × 1023
E) 6.02 × 1022

c

The molecular weight of water is 18 daltons. What is the molarity of 1 liter of pure water?
A) 55.6M
B) 18M
C) 37M
D) 0.66M
E) 1.0M

a

You have a freshly-prepared 1M solution of glucose in water. You carefully pour out a 100 mL sample of that
solution. How many glucose molecules are included in that 100 mL sample?
A) 6.02 × 1023
B) 3.01 × 1023
C) 6.02 × 1024
D) 12.04 × 1023
E) 6.02 × 1022

c

Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong acid?
A) NaOH
B) HCl
C) NH3
D) H2CO3
E) CH3COOH

b

Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong base (alkali)?
A) NaCl
B) HCl
C) NH3
D) H2CO3
E) NaOH

e

Which of the following statements is completely correct?
A) H2CO3 is a weak acid, and NaOH is a weak base (alkali).
B) H2CO3 is a strong acid, and NaOH is a strong base (alkali).
C) NH3 is a weak base (alkali), and H2CO3 is a strong acid.
D) NH3 is a weak base (alkali), and HCl is a strong acid.
E) NH3 is a strong base (alkali), and HCl is a weak acid.

d

A given solution contains 0.0001(10-4) moles of hydrogen ions [H+] per liter. Which of the following best
describes this solution?
A) acidic: H+ acceptor
B) basic: H+ acceptor
C) acidic: H+ donor
D) basic: H+ donor
E) neutral

c

A solution contains 0.0000001(10-7) moles of hydroxyl ions [OH-] per liter. Which of the following best
describes this solution?
A) acidic: H+ acceptor
B) basic: H+ acceptor
C) acidic: H+ donor
D) basic: H+ donor
E) neutral

e

What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OH-] concentration of 10-12 M?
A) pH 2
B) pH 4
C) pH 10
D) pH 12
E) pH 14

a

What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of 10-8 M?
A) pH 2
B) pH 4
C) pH 6
D) pH 8
E) pH 10

d

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [H +]?
A) gastric juice at pH 2
B) vinegar at pH 3
C) tomato juice at pH 4
D) black coffee at pH 5
E) household bleach at pH 12

a

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxyl ions [OH-]?
A) lemon juice at pH 2
B) vinegar at pH 3
C) tomato juice at pH 4
D) urine at pH 6
E) seawater at pH 8

e

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the
A) concentration of H+ has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.
B) concentration of H+ has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9.
C) concentration of OH- has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9.
D) concentration of OH- has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9.
E) Both B and D are correct.

e

If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
A) concentration of H+ is twice (2X) what it was at pH 5.
B) concentration of H+ is half (1/2) what it was at pH 5.
C) concentration of OH- is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.
D) concentration of OH- is one-hundredth (0.01X) what it was at pH 5.
E) concentration of H+ is 100 times greater and the concentration of OH- is one-hundredth what they were
at pH 5.

c

One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H+) than 1 L of a solution of pH 6?
A) 4 times more
B) 400 times more
C) 4,000 times more
D) 10,000 times more
E) 100,000 times more

d

One liter of a solution pH 9 has how many more hydroxyl ions (OH-) than 1 L of a solution of pH 4?
A) 5 times more
B) 100 times more
C) 1,000 times more
D) 10,000 times more
E) 100,000 times more

e

Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
A) They maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them but not when acids are added to them.
B) They maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them but not when bases are added to them.
C) They maintain a constant pH of exactly 7 in all living cells and biological fluids.
D) They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.
E) They are found only in living systems and biological fluids.

d

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
A) releasing H+ in acidic solutions.
B) donating H+ to a solution when they have been depleted.
C) releasing OH- in basic solutions.
D) accepting H+ when the are in excess.
E) Both B and D are correct.

e

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is a
weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus,
H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+
If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect
A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of HCO3-.
B) the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase.
C) the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase.
D) the HCO3- to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3.
E) the HCO3- to act as an acid and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3.

d

One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid H2CO3. Carbonic acid is a
weak acid that when placed in an aqueous solution dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen
ion (H+). Thus,
H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+
If the pH of the blood increases, one would expect
A) a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in the concentration of H2O.
B) an increase in the concentration of H2CO3 and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.
C) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3- and an increase in the concentration of H2O.
D) an increase in the concentration of HCO3- and a decrease in the concentration of H2O.
E) a decrease in the concentration of HCO3- and an increase in the concentration of both H2CO3 and H2O.

a

Assume that acid rain has lowered the pH of a particular lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxyl ion concentration
of this lake?
A) 1 × 10-10 mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water
B) 1 × 10-4 mol of hydroxyl ion per liter of lake water
C) 10.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration
D) 4.0 M with regard to hydroxyl ion concentration
E) both B and D

a

Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
A) buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams.
B) decreasing the H+ concentration of lakes and streams.
C) increasing the OH- concentration of lakes and streams.
D) washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant
growth.
E) both B and C

d

Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From this information, we can
reasonably conclude that
A) solution Y has no free hydrogen ions (H+).
B) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 30 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions
in solution Y.
C) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y is 1,000 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen
ions in solution X.
D) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 3 times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions
in solution Y.
E) None of the other answer choices correctly describes these solutions.

e

Pure, freshly-distilled water has a pH of 7. This means that
A) there are no H+ ions in the water.
B) there are no OH- ions in the water.
C) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.
D) the concentration of H+ ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of OH- ions in the water.
E) The concentration of OH- ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of H+ ions in the water.

c

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO2 + H2O → H2CO3. Carbonic
acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO2. What prediction can we make about the pH of blood
as that blood first comes in contact with respiring cells?
A) Blood pH will decrease slightly.
B) Blood pH will increase slightly.
C) Blood pH will remain unchanged.
D) Blood pH will first increase, then decrease as CO2 combines with hemoglobin.
E) Blood pH will first decrease, then increase sharply as CO2 combines with hemoglobin.

a

A 100 mL beaker contains 10 mL of NaOH solution at pH = 13. A technician carefully pours into the beaker, 10
mL of HCl at pH = 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes the results of this mixing?
A) The concentration of Na+ ion rises.
B) The concentration of Cl- ion falls.
C) The concentration of undissociated H2O molecules remains unchanged.
D) The pH of the beakerʹs contents rises.
E) The pH of the beakerʹs contents falls.

e

Equal volumes of vinegar from a freshly-opened bottle are added to each of the following solutions. After
complete mixing, which of the mixtures will have the highest pH?
A) 100 mL of pure water
B) 100 mL of freshly-brewed coffee
C) 100 mL of household cleanser containing 0.5M ammonia
D) 100 mL of freshly-squeezed orange juice
E) 100 mL of tomato juice

c

You have two beakers; one contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent
bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You
pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into each beaker. Predict what will happen.
A) Equal amounts of NaCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol.
B) NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either water or methanol.
C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol.
D) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in methanol but will not dissolve in water.
E) When the first crystals of NaCl are added to water or to methanol, they will not dissolve; but as more
crystals are added, the crystals will begin to dissolve faster and faster.

c

You have two beakers. One contains a solution of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains a solution of NaOH at
pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of the HCL and 20 mL of the NaOH. After
complete stirring, the pH of the mixture will be
A) 2.0.
B) 12.0.
C) 7.0.
D) 5.0.
E) 9.0.

c

Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly
responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?
A) waterʹs change in density when it condenses
B) waterʹs ability to dissolve molecules in the air
C) the release of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
D) the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds
E) waterʹs high surface tension

d

A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50 -L container of cold
water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water
weighs about 1 kg.)
A) 50°C
B) 5°C
C) 10°C
D) 100°C
E) 1°C

c

The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
A) ionic bonds.
B) hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
C) covalent bonds between atoms within water molecules.
D) polar covalent bonds.
E) nonpolar covalent bonds

b

Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?
A) paper
B) table salt
C) wax
D) sugar
E) pasta

c

We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
A) mass in daltons.
B) mass in grams.
C) number of molecules.
D) number of atoms.
E) volume.

c

How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic
acid? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)
A) 10.0 g
B) 0.1 g
C) 6.0 g
D) 60.0 g
E) 0.6 g

d

Measurements show that the pH of a particular lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
A) 4.0 M
B) 10-10 M
C) 10-4 M
D) 104 M
E) 4%

c

What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake described in question 7?
A) 10-7 M
B) 10-4 M
C) 10-10 M
D) 10-14 M
E) 10 M

c

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