BIO Unit 6 Test

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Purine

-Bases that have 2 ring Carbon and Nitrogen atoms
-Adenine & Guanine

Pyrimidine

-Bases that have 1 ring of Carbon and Nitrogen atoms
-Thymine & Cytosine

Complementary Base Pairs

-Cytosine pairs with Guanine
-Adenine pairs with Thymine
-Connected with Hydrogen bonds

Nitrogen-containing base

-Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, & Cytosine

The primary function of DNA in cells is to:

-Store information that tells the cells which proteins to make

The two strands of a DNA molecule are held together by:

-Hydrogen bonds

According to the base-pairing rules, guanine pairs with:

-Cytosine

During DNA replication, the enzyme DNA polymerase:

-Constructs new nucleotide chains that are complementary to the chains in the original DNA molecule

If the sequence of nucleotides in one chain of a DNA molecules is TCAAGC, a new nucleotide chain will be produced during replication with the complementary sequence:

-AGTTCG

What are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide, and how are they connected to each other?

-Deoxyribose sugar molecule, phosphate group, & Nitrogenous bases
-Sugar & phosphate have a covalent bond
-Bases have Hydrogen bons

If 15% of the nucleotides in a DNA molecule contain guanine, what percentage of the nucleotides contain each of the other three bases?

-Cytosine: 15%
-Adenine: 35%
-Thymine: 35%

Why is it important that exact copies of DNA are produced during replication?

-The RNA will be different and lead to mutations
-Amino acids won't be the same
-There won't be daughter cells

Why is it advantageous to have weak hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs and strong covalent bonds between phosphate and deoxyribose groups in a DNA molecule?

-Bases need to be separated for replication, so they need to easily break
-Backbone needs to remain whole and intact to form the shape and structure of DNA

Messenger RNA

-Ribonucleic acid
-DNA genetic info to ribosomes
-Translated into amino acid sequences
-Nucleus to cytoplasm

Transfer RNA

-Ribonucleic acid
-Functions as interpreter in translation
-Has a specific anticodon
-Picks up specific amino acids
-Conveys amino acid into codon on mRNA
-T shaped

Transcription

-Synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
-DNA to RNA
-Makes 3 RNA's (messenger, transfer, ribosome)

Promoter

-Nucleotide sequence at the start of the gene where transcription begins
-Binding site for RNA polymerase

Ribose is a type of:

-Sugar

In RNA, thymine is replaced by:

-Uracil

The type of RNA that carries instructions for making a protein is called:

-mRNA

In eukaryotic cells, RNA is copied from DNA in the:

-Nucleus

Describe three ways that RNA differs from DNA:

-RNA has an -OH group on the C atom
-Ribose rather than deoxyribose
-Uracil rather than Thymine
-Single stranded structure
-RNA polymers read 3' to 5', not 5' to 3'

Describe the shapes of the three types of RNA:

-mRNA: single-uncoiled chain/strand
-tRNA: t shaped
-rRNA: part of ribosome; globular

How is information about making proteins transmitted from the DNA to the site of protein synthesis?

-mRNA is transcribed then travels to cytoplasm (tNRA), which has the code for amino acids

What would be the nucleotide sequence of the NRA that is transcribed from DNA with a nucleotide sequence of GCTAATCCG?

-CGAUUAGGC

How would the transcription of a eukaryotic gene be affected if a replication error changed the nucleotide sequence of the termination signal for that gene?

-RNA wouldn't fully replicate
-May not be any stop codons, or a change in them
-Difference in amino acids

Step 1 of Transcription

-RNA polymerase binds to the promoter on the template chain

Step 2 of Transcription

-The two chains of the DNA molecule separate near the promoter

Step 3 of Transcription

-RNA polymerase attaches to the first DNA nucleotide of the template chain

Step 4 of Transcription

-Complementary RNA nucleotides are added to the newly forming RNA molecule

Step 5 of Transcription

-RNA polymerase reaches the termination signal and releases the DNA and RNA molecules

Codon

-3 nucleotide sequence in mRNA
-Specifies a particular amino acid or polypeptide termination signal
-Basic unit of genetic code

Translation

-mRNA to amino acid
-Synthesis of polypeptide using genetic information encoded in mRNA molecule

Anticodon

-On a tRNA molecule
-Specific sequence of 3 nucleotides that's complementary to codon triplet on RNA
*Pair with codon on RNA

A protein is a polymer consisting of a specific sequence of:

-Amino acids

The genetic code specifies the correlation between

-An RNA nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence

During translation, one end of a tRNA molecule pairs with a complementary:

-mRNA codon

One binding site on a ribosome holds an mRNA molecule, and the other two binding sites hold:

-tRNA molecules

Two amino acids are linked by a peptide bond when:

-Two tRNAs pair with neighboring codons on an mRNA transcript

List, in order, the tRNA anticodons that are complementary to the mRNA sequence AUGCAUGCAAGUUAG

-UACGUTCGUUCAAUC

How many amino acids will be in the polypeptide that is initially formed when this mRNA sequence is translated?

-Three
*ALWAYS 3

Explain why methionine is the first amino acid in every growing polypeptide

-It tells the polypeptide to start protein synthesis
-AUG

How would a deletion of one nucleotide in the middle of an mRNA transcript affect the polypeptide specified by that transcript?

-There would be a change or mutation
-Different amino acids would occur
-Different mRNA code
-Different sequence

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