Shadow of a Doubt
Alfred Hitchcock film, music correlates with plot, heightens sense of tension, conventional narrative, form (aesthetics of film) complements the narrative (plot's progression), POV is basically Charlie's, camera follows Charlie, studio film, music > correlates (dramatic tension) moves forward for a point of discovery, narrative: is her uncle the murderer? dominate these things do, we do not pay attention to other things as much, audience is controlled, time is played with to increase dramatic tension (scene to the library), charlie as the focus POV, smooth camera work > no attention to direcotr, mis en scene and editing seamless, no disruptions, shadows create a film noir world, genre of suspense, technology 1941 before handheld, studio-based, profit oriented, auteur who works within studio system,
Shadow of a Doubt Scene
dinner; Charlie yells at Uncle after his monologue, the camera doesn't turn to her, it stays on him so we can see him turning to her when he says "really Charlie, are they?" so we see him from her POV,
The Lonedale Operator
DW Griffith, has a narrative, continuity editing
wife at station, burglar trying to get it, corss cuts with husband trying to save her race to rescue melodrama characters are 1 dimensional wife is the victim, burglar is bad, husband is the hero Griffith uses close ups=drift away from cinema of attractions
Orsen Welles ; follows classic Hollywood narrative ; newspaper genre, musicla genre (susan singing)
no real answer, what does rosebud mean with respect ot his life?
newspaper genre usually has a resolution; Kane is not someone you can look up to-not classical Hollywood; film concerned with his state of mind, not as someone moral; there is cause effect; how space & time are used > time is not chronological (interwies overlap, flashbacks) > adds to the mystery, trying to put the pieces of Kan's life together like Susan is playing with the jigsaw puzzle .
stage show musical, real sense of obstacles: depression, pressured pressured directors and actors to do well, need the income; realism of obstacles juxtaposes with the spectacle of the film, the camera jumps on stage, view from above; A hard Day's night-not in one of these genres
chasing the hearse, ballerina, checkberboard ;
Dada Film; rebelling against the structure, social statement (after WWI when all of structure failed); mocks high art-close up of the ballerina's crotch, makes no sense switch from teh chase to the rollercoaster
Meshes of an Afternoon
horror film, woman on the stairs, knife, influenced by surrealism, dream narratives, journey into the subconscious, draws on Freudian imagery (kinfe is rapping her, knife = sexual threat), references to trick film: key is on the table, then it disappears.
New Wave, imitates film noir, strays away from classical Hollywood cinema, heros are ambiguous, neverk now what they're doing, loose narrative but it digresses from it, filmed on actual sets, with available lighitng-similar to the documentary, casual editing
turned the camera on and just filmed what they saw, long shot documentary, cinema of attractions-showing us what a fiml can do, Train arriving at a station-introduces audiences to a brief snippet of technology that mightb e foreign , no intereference
The Grand Illusion Book Scene
they burn books that they receive hoping its something else. Irony of the germans who burn books out of prejudice
The Grand Illusion Hospital Scene
"French or German" duty is a duty; the music is of a dying hero on many levels, a comaderie, "For a commoner, to do in a war is a tragedy.; for you and I , it is a good way to go"
Les Maitres Fous
participatory doc. , cinema-verite, how much is for cinema shock value, home much of it is a study, surrealist aspects of the documnetary - madness dreams, popping into the subconscious, crakc an egg on a statue, then show the british hats, reflexive doc- who's actually crazy the british or the americans, voice of god (rouche) takes us away from the participatory mood
cinema of attractions
carnival, magic show, Mélies, no plot, calls attention to the different thigns cinema can do - make people's faces stretch, disappear , reappear, transport htemselves
Sergei Eisenstein, Odessa Steps, time is messed, very repititve, people take forever to get down the steps, discontinuity editing, montage (film wasn't supposed to represent reality), images don't have to be original or important, what's important is how you put them together, Kuschahov effect: viewer brings their own expectations to what's on screen
The Grand Illusion
Jean Renoir, theme of brotherhood based on a series of escape attempts by French POWs during WWI, cinematogrpahy was meant to be seamless, framing of collective over the individual ( constant reframing on multiple characters), grouping of characters on screen via a humanisitc argument - find the similarities in the characteristics, thrown together as prisoners, coming together as a colelctive, building camaraderie through the company in the medium shot, intentional and unintentional shallow focus throughout, the movements of the camera independent of figure movement that make the film more unusual > the camera movements carve into space to create connections between chracters and characters and objects that enrich the narrative,
Cinematography: Grand Illusion
the can used to signal when prisoner digging in the tunnel needs to be pulled out is seen fall onto a pillow and no one hears it, camera pans from the can to the caharacters who have not noticed it (heighten suspense)
Cinematography: Grand Illusion II
close up of a caged squirrel as the cracters talk about escape, camera than tracks out to reaveal the men standing besie it ( creates a narrative parallel)
Gus Van Sant (2003),
Plot: basically a reenactment of the Columbine high school shooting
Neorealistic: real locations , non professional actors, longtakes/ duration = real sense of time, open ended conclusions, framing is on the mobile individual , promotes vaious interpretations through cinematography, movement between selective and deep focus, poetic interludeso f the clouds
this is a story of a man marked by a memory of his childhood WWIII happens, humankind can only survive with the help from the future this man is able to travel back and forth through time no chronological order, juxtapositions of time goes to future and gets help overlapping chronology , story told thorugh a voice-over narration, photos are of not well defined things (car backof a head, couch) who is the narrator? a lot of distances and angles , man narrating in french, but we don't know the perspective he's coming from German whispering- reference to WWII classical music is unseetling and an enigmantic, don't know wheree it comes from ; machine souds: planes - only soudnds heard with music , poetic approach to cinema - very philosophical , sotory about love, apocalypse, memory, only one scene with moving photos
90 minute long take film, hybrid of spectacle (in the hermitage, huge ball room dance) and narrative (loose narrative of people preparing for the dance, take us thorugh many eras of Russian history) , alternative narrative- space of the hermitage ; 2 stable charactrs: the guy behind the chracter and teh european guide remarking on the russian history; databse narrative = new room = new source of information / history , there's no end/ can keep going on to new rooms ; connectedness and duration (walking along, slwly exploring the space, no cuts , no discontinutity, strong sense of real time ) portable camerao
collection of home videos/ photographs, influenced by music video era, relished the fact that it's an amateur film, doesn't try to hide it, texts throughout that tell the story, use of montage covers 30+ years of renees life, hyperventilation of this oman's life, unlike russian arks long take, grandparents : adolf rosemary son: jonathan
about Lola who gets a phone girl from her boyfriend who says he needs 100K in
20 minutes or I'm going to rob a grocery store b/c some mobster game is afterhim
story starts over 3 times (like a video game with different endings)
first time: she gets the money from her dad, but gets there too late and is shot by
police and dies
cuts to them in bed, with a red tint: he asks her if she loves him? is everything in
life just random occurrences
second time: he dies, ambulance hits him
cuts to red: he asks, what if I die?
third time: dad and policeman dies, Lola and bf survive, win the game
influences from the video game-restart, learn from your mistakes, try again
real time- 20 minutes she has, is 20 minutes of the film
race to the rescue aspect
editing is obvious- different types of reality, cuts to her as a cartoon character
running, screen is tinted red
photorealism: even though a real life equivalent is not available, the simulation
still suggests photographic and cinematographic realism
o Avatar: the creatures don't exist, but they still give them intense detail so
they look as real as possible
no defined narrative, intensely intellectual and philosophically
less playful than Breathless
hybrid of experimental (whole thing), documentary (beginning), and fictional
references to literature, philosophy, that are hard to follow, frustrates the viewer
if you don't know them or where they come from- many levels of interpretation
organized in 3 sections that are reflected in the divine comedy
hell: montage of found footage of war, real life footage, footage from films, not
purgatory: conference from Sarajevo, war torn city
paradise: very idyllic lake side forest that's guarded by US marines
most of the story takes part in purgatory
Godard himself takes part in it, gives a lecture of shot, reverse shot
shot reverse shot is used a lot in the film
either this person or that person, either the killer or the weak (in war or in
everyday interaction there's this theme of miscommunication, there's a barrier
two sides of humanity (librarians and collectors of culture vs. the revolutionaries)
Olga is in btwn- she trying to revolt, die for peace, but she has books in her bookbag
bazin, kraucer (or however you spell it), bogart, eisenstein... talk about their works, give
dates, time periods, styles, traditional hollywood norms? also look at the wikipedia links on
began directing in 1908
director of Lonedale Operator
Birth of a Nation: -super controversial becaus of its negative portrayal of black americans and positive portrayal of the KKK but made serios steps in the use of advanced camera and narrative techniques / first tu udnerstand how film techniques could be used to create an expressive language / corsscutting between rescuer and victim / set up his camera much closer than his contemporaries framing his actors in medium long shot or medium shot so he could catch subtle changes in facial xpression that he directed his actors to make
director, actor, writer, producer, worked in theater, tele, radio, diretor Citizen Kane (1941) - considered one of the greatest films ever made / he was given complete artistic control / known for its use of deep focus / low camera angles / tells the life of Charles Foster Kane thorugh flashbacks, trying to find out what the word Rosebud meant , however it did not receive positive feedback b/c it did not use many hollywood conventions / other big movies: the magnificent ambersons, the lady from shanghait/ most of his films were commericial failures / one of the most recognizable dep voices in film
movie director and musical choreographer / famous for his elaborate musical production numbrs that involved complx geometric patterns of large number of showgirls / dance numbers display the female form as sexual / parade of faces technique : each chorus girl has al oving close-up / moves dancers all over the stage in as many kaleidoscopic patterns as possible / very popular - he was hired toc hereograph 4 musicals back to back for Warner / bros: 42nd street, footlight pardade, gold diggers of 33, fashions of 34 / tried directing for a bit but eventually returned to his strength
Battleship Potemskin style
Black n White, Soundtrack one of might / epic / drama / Revolutionary / Silent Film Era / Montage / Narration thorugh intertitles / Already the feeling of the masses conveyed (sleeping hammocks) / soundtrack compelements narrative cues /ability to have random scenes of men doing "represnentations of things" editing put together / costume mataches 20th century mnavy / Eisenstein wrote the film as a revolutionary propaganda film, but also used it to test his theories of "montage". The revolutionary Soviet filmmakers of the Kuleshov school of filmmaking were experimenting with the effect of film editing on audiences, and Eisenstein attempted to edit the film in such a way as to produce the greatest emotional response, so that the viewer would feel sympathy for the rebellious sailors of the Battleship Potemkin and hatred for their cruel overlords. In the manner of most propaganda, the characterization is simple, so that the audience could clearly see with whom they should sympathize.
Eisenstein Style Editing
For many Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s, editing was a major means of organising the entire form of the film.; it did not simply serve the narrative progression, as in the continuity system. Eisenstein's Potemkin tried to build a film on the basis of certain editing devices. Rather than subordinate his editing patterns to the mapping out of a story, Eisenstein conceived of these films as editing constructions.
The most celebrated scene in the film is the massacre of civilians on the Odessa Steps (also known as the Primorsky or Potemkin Stairs). In this scene, the Tsar's Cossacks in their white summer tunics march down a seemingly endless flight of steps in a rhythmic, machine-like fashion firing volleys into a crowd. The victims include a family of a old woman wearing Pince-nez, a young boy with his mother, a young ex-Tsarist officer, and a young schoolgirl. Other victims are a man with curly hair and glasses and a mother who is pushing a baby in a baby carriage. As she falls to the ground, dying, she leans against the carriage, nudging it away; it rolls down the steps amidst the fleeing crowd.
American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer, and actor
started his career with his sister, Adele
Top Hat, Roberta, ShallWe Dance (all 1930s)
particularly associated with Ginger Rogers
innovator of filmed dance
o camera should film a dance routine in a single shot, dancers at full view
started in The Gay Divorcee onwards
contrasted with Berkeley's style: known for dance sequences filled
with extravagant aerial shots, quick takes, and zooms on certain
areas of the body, such as the arms or legs
o all song and dance routines be integrated into the plot line
instead of using dance as a spectacle like Berkeley
used in the fairy tale musical
an Astaire picture included a solo by Astaire, a partnered comedy dance routine,
and a partnered romantic dance routine
dancer, actor, singer, film director, producer, and choreographer
known for his energetic and athletic dancing style
best known for Singin' in the Rain
dominant force in musical films in the mid 40s to late 50s
credited for making the ballet form commercially acceptable to fil
master of mise-en-scene, discovered the stop trick, first to use multiple
trick films, cinema of attraction
Dadist filmmaker, directed Entr'acte 1924 , sequences make no sense , random play, lack of narrative strikes against bourgeois society
Jean Luc Godard
French auteur member of FNW, director of Breathless, 1960 and Notre Musqie 2004, Hollywood cinema influenced his styled but did not limit it, breathless was a combo of film noir and FNW, film references, challenged conventionality
American avant-garde filmmaker of the 40s and 50s Meshes of the Afternoon 1943, cinema should be an art, influenced by surrealism, challenged Hollywood narrative, deals w/ imagination
he first made silent films, directed The Grand Illusion 1937, known for its seamless cinematography and its human relationships, mankind's common experiences should prevail about political division and extension (war)
french film critic, advocated the use of deep focus (welles), wide shots (Renoir), and true continuity through the mise en scene, opposed film theory of the 20s and 30s which emphasized on how cinema can manipulate reality, believed that the interpretation of a film or scene should be left ot the spectator
starred in The maltese falcon and many other film noirs, famous for his role in casablanca, type-casted as a gangster or tought guy, almost always played a hard boild cynic who ultimatesly shows his noble side
directed Battleship Potemkin 1925, revolutionary Soviet Russian film director, innoviatve use of montage, believed editing should be used for more than just expounding a scene or moment thourhg linkage of related images, felt the collision of shots could be used to manipulate the emotions of the audience and create film methpaors, developed the methods of montage which includes metric, rhythmic, tonal, overtonal, and intellectual, his narratives addressed broad social issues, expecially class conflict
Lumiere: Quotidien cinema, camera immobile watching things
Meliers: cinema of attractions
Griffith: Narrative, language of film
Lois Weber's Suspense
one reel, silent film, race ot the rescue, social commentaries with her films (First woman), race to rescue like lonedale operator, SUSPENSE (the film), temporal and spatial relationships, social commentary; moment when people start moving to the suburbs the urban seen as dark and dangerous fearful of modernity,
principles that guide the various parts to create a whole; film form can be organised by conventions, they can make the film feel very seamless in which style and narrative work together to maintain the focus on a singular experience, film form can also be disruptive . it can disrupt the pleasure of the narrative b/c the direcotr may want us to think about the tolls of cinema, they may want us to respond to another meaning. ALso a film can be badly made, tools not unified to serve a coherent purpose/function, overall, the film form that we mostly look at is narrative drive n and genre based
Tools for Analysis
system to project / affect emotions / meaning , evluation: realism, moral criteria, complexity, originality; function - a motivation component, repition and similarity, difference, variation-consturcts narrative, dramatic conflict ; development: segmentation ; disunity and unity
chain of events in cause-effect relationship occurring in time and space ; tools for analysis 1. story/plot , 2. diegetic/non-diegetic elements, 3. character (body, traits) driven-goal oriented or responsive 4. temporal order / duration 5. space 6. openings, endings, development
Citizen Kane Laura Mulvey
In this article, Laura Mulvey analyzes Citizen Kane specifically s in the context of feminist and psychoanalytical theory. She claims that one of the ways the film seems anti-Hollywood is through the lack of a female star. She then discusses the debate among the critics concerning the meaning of the word Rosebud: "One position is that the puzzle of "Rosebud" ha a specific meaning that can be identified to solve the mystery of Charles Foster Kane's Life. The other position is that the enigma of human being is far too intricate and complex to be reduced to such a simple explanation. Furthermore, Mulvey discusses the characters of Citizen Kane, claiming that they are not moral characters that the audience can identify with. "The characters are not the source of meaning, their psychoanalysis is."
Significance of Form, Learning Objectives
form is overall relations that can be perceived among the elements of the whole film; these include narrative (or nonnarritve) and stylistic elements. form and content are often very closely linked nad reinforce one another in film. audience expectations lead to an understanding of film organisation. suspense and surprise arise when audience expectations are not met as anticipated. our expectations are formed by relating the situations and characters we see on screen to our own experiences. we feel suspense, surprise, shock and humour when our expectations are not met as anticipated.film's meaning has four types of it: referential, explicit, implicit, and symtomatic
Narrative as a formal system, learning objectives
This chapter examines narrative or story form in film. Most common in fictional films, narrative's components are causality, time, and space. Narratives have a plot that is affected by cause-and- affect relationships and contain exposition, narration, and a conclusion. The number of possible narratives is limitless.a narrative film, which makes use of causality, time , and space, may also be governed by other formal principles such as parallelism. we are exposed to stories every day . films often rely on our preconceptions of narrrative form in order to tlel their stories. Audiences make sense of a narrative by identifying its events and linking them by cause and effect, time, and space. Diegesis encompasses the world of the film and the events within it, while nondiegetic elements are those things of which the world of the film is not aware, such as the soundtrack and the credits. Plot consists of only the story events that are presented, while story implies other diegetic events that we never see.Narrative relies heavily on cause and effect. In films, characters are generally agents of action (creating the cause), which then solicits results (effects). The more important a character is the more complex traits they have, which affects what causes they will set into motion. A common device is to withhold effects, which heightens tension and ambiguity in films.
Film Art & Film History
• The factors that affect the film industry include the state of the film industry, artistic theories held by the filmmakers themselves, pertinent technological features, and elements of the socioeconomic context of the period.
• Early cinema consisted of individuals creating the means for still pictures to move in rapid succession. This was achieved through the combination of a flexible, transparent film base, a fast exposure time, a mechanism to pull the film through the camera, an intermittent device to stop the film, and a shutter to block off light. Most of the first films depicted important events or scenic areas. By 1904 film was primarily narrative.
• The period of classical Hollywood cinema is categorized by the creation of film studios (MGM, Fox, WB, Universal, and Paramount being the largest). Cinema became oriented toward a narrative form. The continuity system became the standard. By the end f the 1920s, the Hollywood product had come to be known as the industry standard.
• Sound in film came about in the 1920s using a system that played records in synchronization with film images. Although it took several years to figure out the most effective way to use both image and sound together, the invention of sound led to the creation of the musical, which provided financial success for the film studio. Color film stocks became popular in the 1930s and provided many more possibilities for the medium.
Allusion to particular items of knowledge outside the film that the viewer is expected to recognize.
Significance presented, overtly, usually in language and often near the film's beginning or end
Significance that the film divulges, often against its will, by virtue of its historical or social context.
The justification given in the film for the presence of an element. This may be
an appeal to the viewer's knowledge of the real world, to genre conventions, to narrative
causality, or to a stylistic pattern within the film.
When all the relationships we perceive within a film are clear and economically interwoven, we say that the film has unity. Every element present has a specific set of functions, similarities and differences are determinable, the form develops logically, and no element is superfluous.
A narrative is a chain of events in cause-effect relationship occurring in time and space.
In a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented to us, including their causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations. Opposed to story, which is the viewer's imaginary construction of all the events in the narrative.
In a narrative film, the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the sequence in which the chronological events of the story are arranged in the plot.
In narrative film, the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the time span presented in the plot and assumed to operate in the story
In narrative film, the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the number of time any story event is show in the plot.
Most minimally, any film displays a two-dimensional graphic space, the fiat composition of the image. In films that depict recognizable objects, figures, and locales, a three-dimensional space is represented as well. At any moment, three-dimensional space may be directly depicts, as onscreen space, or suggested, as off screen space. In narrative film, we can also distinguish between story space, the locale of the totality of the action (whether shown or not, and plot space, the locales
How deeply the plot plunges into a character's psychological states. A plot might confine us wholly to information about what characters say and do: their external behavior. Here the narration is relatively objective. Or a film's plot may give us access to what characters see and hear. We might see shots taken from a character's point of view. There might be sound perspective. Visual and auditory point-of views are called perceptual subjectivity. There is also mental subjectivity.
A Shadow of a Doubt 1943
Synopsis: The film is about a girl, Little Charlie, who comes to believe her Uncle Charlie is a murderer who preys on rich woman. The film progresses through her lack of knowledge, to her suspicions, and then to her knowing the truth about her uncle.
• Camera movement in this film is very important and telling. An important scene in which this is depicted is the dinner table scene. When Uncle Charlie launches into a monologue about his despise for rich women the camera "comes steadily forward, filling the frame with Uncle Charlie's face as his monologue increases in anger and intensity." Here, "the relentless forward camera movement suggests that we're getting a glimpse into his mind."
• Point-of-view shots in this film are also important. Indeed, Hitchcock uses p-o-v shots throughout the film. An example of this occurs at the dinner party scene as well. After Uncle Charlie finishes his monologue, Little Charlie blurts out that these women are human. Instead of Hitchcock turning the camera towards her, he leaves the camera and then zooms in further onto Uncle Charlie as he turns to the camera, almost looking at the audience, and says, "Are they?" In doing this, Hitchcock puts the audience in little Charlie's position. This is a point-of-view shot.
The Lonedale Operator
• This film acts as an example of Classical Hollywood Cinema • It is oriented towards narrative, continuity, and development: there is a race to get to the train
station and rescue the woman. • Adhering to Griffith's style, this is a complex narrative filmed in a short amount of time, it has a
race and rescue scenes, he films his actors from a medium shot in order to capture subtle nuances. • One-dimensional characters • Race-to-the-rescue melodrama • Take note of the technology. • Close-up: this is one of the first uses of the close up.
• Citizen Kane follows the classic Hollywood cinema and has been praised for its innovative use of narrative. Ultimately, narration can be defined as the revelation of story information by the plot to the viewer. Whether from the point of view of a character, a nameless voice, or other device, narration is the giving and withholding of information to tell the film's story.
• Citizen Kane uses a hybrid of genres: The newspaper Genre, the musical, and the detective genre.
• Citizen Kane, while it is a classical film, strays away from many conventions o The protagonist, Kane, is not a hero. The film is more concerned with his psychological
state than his morality. o As a newspaper genre, the film fails to solve the mystery. o And "Kane is not a standard mystery, since it answers some questions but leaves other
unanswered. Why is Rosebud important? • Citizen Kane follows the classical Hollywood style: "desire propels the narrative, causality is
defined around traits and goals, conflicts lead to consequences, time is motivated by plot necessity,
and narration is objective, mixing restricted and unrestricted passages. • Citizen Kane also strays away from this style: "Desires, traits, and goals are not always spelled out,
the conflicts sometimes have an uncertain outcome, it doesn't provide closure. • In Citizen Kane, two distinct sets of characters cause events to happen: first, the group of reports
and second, Kane and the characters who know him. • In Citizen Kane, the order, duration, and frequency of events in the story differ greatly from the way
the plot of Citizen Kane present those events. • In the beginning, the order of the newsreel's presentation of Kane's life roughly parallels the order
of scenes in the flashbacks related to Thompson. • Through manipulations order, duration, and frequency, the plot both assists our search and
complicates it in order to provoke curiosity and suspense. • The search for "rosebud" acts as a motivating force within the story. • "Using different narrators to transmit story information fulfills several functions: It offers itself as a
process of investigation.... it shows different sides of Kane, depending on who is narrating the
story...it enhances curiosity.
Film Genres, Learning Objectives
• This chapter focuses on ways films can be categorized. Each category, called a genre, consists of a set of conventions that define it. While most films can be classified into at least one genre, many fit the criteria for multiple genres and the lines between them can be blurred. Popular genres include the Western, horror films, and musicals.
• Frequently, people choose to go the movies to see a certain type of film. Genres are used by industry officials in deciding what kinds of films to make and as a simple way to characterize film. • Many films do not fit into just one genre category because they contain elements of many different
genres. • Genre can be analyzed in terms of the genre conventions, some type of common identity, which
reappears in film after film. Genre conventions can be plot elements, specific types of characters,
icons, and themes. • Genre conventions change over time. Their conventions change, and by mixing conventions from
different genres, filmmakers create new possibilities from time to time. The mixing of genre conventions makes it possible for genres to borrow elements from one another. Through each genre is formulaic to a certain extent, they must constantly be evolving, as they generally don't remain successful for very long. Rather, they experience periods of popularity called cycles.
• Often, genres provide a basis for social analysis. By exploiting social values and attitudes, genre harmonizes with public attitudes. Genres often reflect the attitudes and values of the society in which they are produced. Sometimes, they also rely on their conventions to make larger social commentary and challenge prevalent beliefs and assumptions.
• Starting out as musical revues, the musical is categorized by its use of song and dance. Two early typical plot patterns were the backstage musical plot and the "let's put on a show!" plot, although straight musicals where people may sing and dance in everyday situations were also popular. The musical has often been associated with children's stories, such as The Wizard of Oz. The range of subject matter in musicals is so broad that is it hard to pin down specific iconography associated with its genre. Along with children's stories, musicals have also dealt with more serious, tragic stories.
• Semantic components of the musical o Format: Narrative. Music and dance numbers are linked through a story line.
WEEK 3: GENRE, THE MUSICAL (42nd Street, A Hard Days Night)
o Characters. Romantic couple in society. Even in Shirley Temple films or animated musicals, a courting couple and the community surround them are necessary to the musical&#039;s romantic comedy approach.
o Acting: Combination of rhythmic movement and realism. Both extremes - straight realism and pure rhythm - must b present for the musical to effects its characteristic merging of the two.
o Sound: Mixture of diegetic music and dialogue. Without diegetic music or dance, there can be no musical. Conversely, films that are all music cannot achieve the musical&#039;s constitutive effect of moving from the world of sober speech into the musical realm of romance.
Syntactic components of the musical o Narrative strategy: Dual-focus. The film alternates between male and female partners,
establishing parallels between the two, identifying each with a specific cultural value, and
eventually provoking their confrontation and merger. o Couple/plot: Parallels between couple formation and plot resolution. Courtship is thus
always closely connected to some other aspect of the film&#039;s thematic material. o Music/Plot: Music and dance as expression of personal and communal joy. As signifiers of
romantic triumph over every possible limitation, music and dance serve a celebratory
purpose. o Narrative/number: Continuity between realism and rhythm, dialogue and diegetic music.
The musical&#039;s oppositions exist only to be resolved, following the American mythology of
marriage as a mystical union of the couple. o Image/sound: Classical narrative hierarchy (image over sound) reversed at climactic
moments. Through the process of the &quot;audio dissolve&quot; we enter a would where actions keep time to the music rather than the more familiar situation where sound is produced and synchronized with imaged actions.
Types of musical o The fairy-tale musical: Set in distant aristocratic locales treated in travelogue fashion, the
fairy-tale musical makes restoration of order in the romantic coupling process parallel to the
restoration of order in an imaginary kingdom. Guiding metaphor: to marry is to govern. o The show musical: Set in Manhattan centered modern middle-class world of theatre and
publishing, the show musical associates the constitution of a couple with the creation of a
show. Guiding metaphor: to marry is to create. o The folk musical: set in the America of yesteryear, from small tow to frontier, the folk
musical&#039;s integration of two disparate individuals into a single couple heralds the entire groups communion with each other and with the land that sustains them. Guiding metaphor:marriage is community
Various types of films that audiences and filmmakers recognize by their familiar narrative conventions. Common genres are musical, gangster, and science fiction films.
Top Hat is a fairy-tale-musical. Fred Astaire and Ginger Rodgers live in this fairy-tale musical. They exist in this posh world, where people travel on the Queen Elizabeth from New York to Europe. There is not a sense of economic trouble or, in general, larger obstacles. All of there obstacles revolve around romance: mistaken identity. The story, as a whole is focused on romance. The narrative is one of a man convincing a woman to fall in love with him
Moulin Rouge & Top Hat
These adhere to Richard Altman's discussion about the musical. o The characters move between the real world and the musical world. o There is movement between dialogue and song. That is, the narrative progresses in the dance
numbers. • In Moulin Rouge, the framing comes from the sixties ( A Hard Days Night), while the courtship is
similar to that in Top Hat.
• 42nd Street is a stage show musical. In this film, there is a sense of real obstacles. They are in the
midst of the depression. There are a lot of obstacles that need to be over come: the difficulty of the director, a sense that even the music is bad. It is much more realistic than Top Hat. The numbers in this film, however, are also fantastical. So, the film moves from realistic to fantastic.
A Hard Days Night
This film adheres to neither of the musical categories. o The Beatles are playing themselves. o The Film is about the selling of a product.
The film however does adhere to some musical categories. o It is very close to the show-musical: there is backstage practice, and there is the presence of
much the same dynamics - the director and the stage/studio. o Also, like in 42nd Street there is a sense of the real middle-class world.
The film strays away from musical categories. o There are not obstacles. The Beatles, and thus, the audience do not care what happens in the
narrative. One obstacle that presents itself is Ringo leaving. However, the audience does not
care if he makes it to the show or not because they know that they will hear their music. o The form picks up on this: the film is not highly structures, the camera is handheld, and
there is a rapid pace of editing. Also, as we move between songs there is no narrative function. Rather, there is a sense of pure play, of anarchy. The film is thus, more about promoting the Beatles and establishing them as youthful free spirits. There are couple of narrative forms but you don&#039;t care: Ringo&#039;s story.
There is a sense of a romantic courtship with the audience.
Cinema of Attractions
What is it? o In his essay, Tom Gunning describes it as a cinema that bases itself in its ability to show
something. It is a cinema that calls attention to itself and thus demands the attention of the spectator. A cinema of attraction usually has no narrative and no developed characters. It is all about the spectacle. One popular form of cinema of attractions is the Trick Film.
o Trick Film: It is a series of displays of magical attractions. Many trick films are plotless. If there is a story, the story simply provides a frame upon which to string a demonstration of magical possibilities. Georges Melies made many trick films.
• Examples o Georges Melies Shorts
o Warhol's Kiss (1963) ! Warhol is remaking Edison's kiss. But, in this film, the film has no narrative and it is
very shocking. It calls attention to itself. It is one long-take of two people kissing. o Hitchcock's show scene from Psycho
! This scene is very shocking. Many audience members had never experienced a shower scene.
• Controversy: Is Cinema of Attraction subversion to the Hollywood system? o Buzby Berkeley
! People would go to the moves to watch him, irrelevant of the film. o The Beatles in A Hard Days Night
! The film has no narrative development. As a result, when people go see the film they are going to watch the Beatles. In the film, we are watching the Beatles perform to their fans and release energy. There is an anarchic energy that is left over at the end of the film.
Dada (Clair, Entr'acte)
Anti-structure, chaotic, use of slapstic and race to rescue, magic/trick film. • It is an early art movement-counter structure. • It is a non-sensical world. • Dadaism is an act of revulsion, of protest and of criticism. Rejection of whatever seems to be the
standard. • Example
o Clair's Entr'acte)
uncanny, symbolic language, journey into the subconscious—filmic language of impressionism and dada
• There is a focus in these films. Filmmakers are trying to understand the psychological causes of things. Their films explore the measures of the conscious and the unconscious world.
• Surrealist art sought to register the hidden currents of the unconscious. They played with automatic writing and painting, searching for bizarre evocative imagery.
• Surrealist cinema is anti-narrative, attacking causality itself. • The style of Surrealist cinema is eclectic. Mis-en-scene is influenced by surrealist paintings. • Surrealist editing is influenced by Impressionism (dissolves and superimpositions) and some
• An interest in giving narration psychological depth, revealing the play of a character&#039;s consciousness. The interest falls noton external physical behavior but on inner action.
• Impressionist films manipulated plot, time and subjectivity. They often depict memories, flashbacks, dreams, fantasies, and mental states.
• Oftentimes, the filmmakers experimented on ways to evoke these mental states through forms. • The impressionists also experimented with pronounced rhythmic edithing to suggest the pace of an
experience as a character feels it. • Maya Deren and Alfred Hitchcock were influenced by the impressionist form - the psychological
narrative, subjective camera work, and editing.
American Avant-Garde FIlm
dream narratives, Hollywood narrative structure, genre, trick film, surrealism.
• Heavily influenced by surrealists; dream narratives; a sense of drawing upon Hollywood's continuity editing system.
• Examples: o Maya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon
A group of young filmmakers who brought an innovative style to film. • They were influenced by the idea of an auteur.
o Auteur: The presumed or actual author of a film, usually identified as the director. Also, sometimes used in an evaluative sense to distinguish good filmmakers from bad ones.
• The New wave cinema had revolutionary qualities. Some these components can be seen in the film Breathless.
o They had a casual look. They shot on location and used natural lighting. o The cinematography was different: use of the handheld camera, smaller more intimate with
the character. o They had casual humor. o New Wave films also pushed further the Neorealist experimentation with plot construction.
In general, causal connections became quite loose.
o The films have a lack of goal-oriented protagonists. The heroes often drift aimless, engage in actions on the spur of the moment, and spend their time talking and drinking aimlessly.
o The films typically end ambiguously. ! In Breathless what does Michel mean by disgusting?
Meshes of an Afternoon
• It is an Avant-Garde Film • Heavily influenced by surrealists; dream narratives; a sense of drawing upon Hollywood's
continuity editing system. • Deren
o Her film is in a dream world of sorts. It draws upon Freudian imagery about the knife, something that is seen as dangerous. The knife becomes a sexual threat.
o The film comes out of the horror drama as well as the classical film and then shifts back to the dream world.
o There is a sense of Hollywood Continuity. o There are references to trick Magic Films
! Stop Motion Photography
! With the knife and the keys
• Godard's Breathless o Threads of past alternative approaches. o Godard was working with a New Wave Era
! A whole New Technology Available: smaller camers ! Post War Modes of Cinema
• Natural lighting and more improvisational approach to acting. ! New Approaches to Documentary
• Cinema Verite or direct cinema ! Ideas of Auteur
• Distinct style or distinct way of telling the story ! New Forms of Art
• Abstract Expressionism ! Psychoanalysis
! Philosophy ! Youth Culture
• Jazz, film, etc.
• Appreciations of classic literature: Faulkner o The film References a lot of Hollywood Genres and stars
! Hollywood film. He understands the genres present in Hollywood films but he is not going to make one. Rather, he mixes a lot genres together: film noir/ romance/Detective.
! He draws upon Hollywood star Humphrey Bogart. o The film draws upon documentary films
! There is a sense of real life. o Although there is a sense of Dadaist tricks and anarchy there is also a sene of structure:
There is a narrative o Unlike, Hollywood films the characters are not one-dimension: these are characters we
know and understand albeit there flaws. • Breathless was written and directed by auteurist Jean-Luc Godard. • Godard was a part of a group of French Filmmakers that were called the New Wave. • Breathless imitates the film noir film.
o Film Noir: Dark film, a term applied by French critics to a type of American film, usually in the detective or thriller genres, with low key lighting and somber mood.
• It strays away from methods of classical Hollywood Cinema o The film's ambivalent attitude pervades form and technique.
! Breathless is awkward and casual. It makes character motivations ambiguous and lingers over incidental dialogue.
! Breathless utilizes location shooting with available lighting. ! Scenes containing crucial action are sometimes brief and confusing. ! Non-Hollywood Editing
• While he sometimes uses the 180 degree rule, oftentimes he does not. ! Unlike the Hollywood Film Noir, Michel does not blame Patricia for betraying him.
In film Noir films, the noir hero often becomes disillusioned with the treacherous
woman. ! The characters motivations are often ambiguous
• • • •
Why didn't Michel leave when he had the chance? Why did Patricia report Michel? Why did Patricia immediately go with Michel. The ambiguity is also in the dialogue.
o 25 minutes in which the dialogue has no motivation; seems random and improvisational.
aims to present factual (and trustworthy/reliable) informatino in a multitude of ways > record events as tehy occur (real spaces, real people) > charts, maps, other visual aids > stage certain events to be recorded > Man with a Movie Camera: the central figure clearly is performing by director's orders. > documentary may take a stand, state an opinon, or advocate a solution to a problem, use rhetoric to persuade an audience
produced by assembling images from archival sources (newsreel footage, instructional films)
records an ongoing event as it happens with minimal interference by the filmmaker > emerged in 50s and 60s when portable camera & sound equipment became available > camera records as event unfolds > aka CINEMA VERITE
records nature (go figure) micromosos uses magnifying lenses to explore the world of insects , this type has increased since IMAX
Boundary b/w Docu & Fiction
fictional film= representation of an imaginary world / may incorporate actual history & geography for context, commont on the real world thorugh theme, subj. characterisation / stages all or nearly all events / characters are protrayed by actors/ mockumentaries...(district 9)
Types of Form in Documentary Films
most docs are organised as narratives / categorical form: a type of filmic organisation in which the parts treat distinct subsets of a topic / rhetorical form: a type of filmic organization in which the parts create and support the argument persuasion emotional appeal / arguments from source : scholar or something / subject centered arguments: film appeals to beliefs common at the time, use examples that support its point, used to back up an argument/ view centered arguments: film makes an argument that appeals to the emotions of the viewer
Man with a Movie Camera
combines ediiting & cinematography to shape many tiny scenes from everyday reality into a highly idiosncratic docu / cinematographic special ffects act as a motif thorughout docu / this type of docu is called city symphony w/ some alternatives, altho vertov does film more than one city.
reassemble fragments of the world poetically / bring poetri into the world of history / plays w/ aesthetics to augment the power of the historical world
directlu addresses issues in the ihsotrical world / assured argument recounts history, addresses teh viewer directly / typically plays the voice of God / single authority, confident in the authenticity and truth of info presented, dominates the picture, has hindsight
observe things as they happen/ no staging / looking in on life lived / no adding, pure form, just watch, emphasis on raw happnenings of life / strong feeling of duration - very realistic sense of time
interview or interact w/ subjects / use archival film to retrieve history / anthroplogist / filmmaker becomes a social actor
questions docu form / encounter b/w the filmmaker and us / look at the docu as a construct or representations, why this way? / meant to heighten our consciousness of the documentary and what it represents / ex. Jean Luc Godard's letter to jane is a 45 minute film scrutinizing in great detail a photo fo jane fonda during her visit to north vietnam. no aspec goes unexamines.
stress subjective aspects of classically objective discourse / raises questions about what is knowledge (liike the poetic mode) / subjective perspective
avant garde / challenge the orthodox notions of what a movie can show/ may tell no story , create poetic reveries / recognised by its efforst of self-expression / individually driven, less economically influenced
Types of Form in Experimental Films
abstract form: a type of filmic organisation in which the parts relate to one another through repitition and variation of such visual qualities as shoape, color, rhythm, variation of such avisual qualities as shape color rhythm and direction of movement / the begining shows us some relationships b/w basic material abstract films depend on building up greater and greater differences from teh introductory material / there should be an underlying principle that runs though the film if done correctly / juxtapose images to make relations b/w the visual qualites
associational form: a type of filmic organization in which the film's parts are juxtaposed to suggest similarities contrasts concepts emotions and expressive qualiteis / group images that may not have any immediate logical connection no narrative connection does not tell a story / filmmaker creates an soociation of unlike things that binds them together simply by having one come after other / the asoication may be thorugh what we see visually, but also through broader concepts and emotions / no sense of contiuining characters, no emporal order of scenes / there may be a point but there is no attempt to persuade us thourhg an argument to that point
mise en scnee
first applied to the practice of directing plays / signifies the directors control over what appears in the film frame / examples: setting, props, costumes, makeup, hair, lighting , staging ,acting, blocking / NOT mise en scene: script, music, sound, cinematography, editing, effects / function: to create an impression of realism, comic exaggeration, supernatural terror, understated beauty (it can transcend normal conceptions of reality) / visual motifs can map out the film and can be used as reference points / when analyzing mise-en-scene in the total film: how is it motivated, how it varies or develops, how it works in relations to other film techniques / how do the elements work together or against each other? how doesi te volve?
Aspects of MES
setting: sets the mood, provides environemtal context / plays more active role in film than in theatre / filmmaker selects an already exisitng locale / filmmaker constructs the setting (a studio increases their control) / sometimes setting overwhelms the actors (notice the setting more than the action) or it can be reduced to nothing / importance of colour in a setting (think of all about my mother) - use colour to create parallels among elements of setting > a colour motif may become associated w/ several props / to manipulate a shot's setting , props are created > props = object in the setting that has a function with the ongoigng action > a prop can become a motif
costume: authentic or stylized? / costumes can play important motif and causal roels in narratives / costume is coordineated with setting/ filmmaker wants to emphasize the huma nfigures so etting will be more or less neutral while costume helps characters stand out / or the filmmaker can choose to math the colour values of setting and cosume more closely (costumes blend into the background)
impact of an image comes from its manipulation of lighting / lighiting illuminates the scene so we can see the action / more importantly however lighter & darker hues help create the overall composition of each shot and thus guide our attntion to certain objects and action > brightly illuminated patch will draw our attention to a key gesture > a shadow may conceal a detail / lighting creates highlights and hsadows > help create our sense of a scenes space > highlights a patch of relative brightness on a surface > shadows: two types >> attached shadows (or shading) occurs when light fails to illuminate part of an object b/c of the object's shape >>> when a person sits in front of a candle, their nose creates a shadow on the adjoining cheek = attached shadow >>cast shadows: occurs when a shadow is projected b/c of an object in the set
Four Features of Lighiting
quality , direction, source & colour
qualite: relative intensity of the illumination (hard lighting v. soft lighting)
Direction: frontal (eliminate shadows and a failrly flat looking image)
side (from one side , gives sense of volume, to bring out surface tensions, to fill in areas left shadowed by light from another source)
Back (edge lighting rim lighting, silhouettes)
Underlighting (offscreen flashlight suggestion / distortion)
toplighting Separates from background and highlights cheekbones upper face
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
1920; Robert Wiene; uses EXTREME stylization to present a madman's fantasy/German expressionisme
>German Expressionism: unusually stylized films, avant-garde film image becomes graphic art, depends heavily on MES
>>shapes are distorted exaggerated unrealistically for expressive purposes
actors wear heavy makeup and move in jerky or slow sinuous pattterns >film noir- influeced by german ex
outward projection of psychological disturbance
reflection of Germany's failed authority . authoritative figure is high up on a pedestal, but when he is killed no one seems to care they go off and enjoy the carnival police don't do much no order civilians bring in the criminal
every scene saturated w/ MES
the sets lean over , trees are distorted dying (yet seeem threatening, windows are slanted-odd shapes, kite-like, the walls are all paints-not shadows ),
All About My Mother
color and expressiveness / outward projection of psychological stare?
All women are actresses, mothers, saints, sluts, and all men ahve a little a women in them
photographic aspects of the shot, framing of the shot, duration of the shot
range of tonalities
manipulate film stock, exposure, and developing procedures to give the image a colour / film stocks: strip of material upon which a series of still photographs is registered > different chemical qualities of the stock= different types of contrast b/w the degrees of light and dark areas, exposure, filtes
Speed of MOtion
rates: in shooting, the # of frames exposed per second , in projecting the # of frmaes thrown on the screen / second / if the wtwo are the same, the speed of actio nwill be normal, whereas a disparity will create slow or fast motion / time lapse: changement o f big times through etreme ;
thigns further waway seem typically smaller, perspective relations = scale, depth, and spatial relations of the scene , lens: does what your does - gathers light form the scene and transmits that light onto the flat surface of the film; focal length: distance from teh center of the lens to the point where light rays converge to a point of focus on the film, wide angle (short focal) : less tha n35 mm, distort straight lines vertlically, emphasize depth;.normal lens: 35 to 50 mm , telephoto lens: 75 to 220 mm or more, planes seem squashed together onto the smae plane - depth and volume are reduced - used for sporting events b/c they allow for the magnification of action at a distance. zoom lens: permits the continuous varying of focal length
depth of field
the range of distances before the lens within which objects can be photographed in sharp focus; director can choose to focus on only one plane and letting the others blur - deep focus: keeps objects in both close and distnat planes in a sharp focus (CKane) ; shallow focus, racking focus
the use of edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen / the edges of the image crate a frame taht includes or excludes apsects of what occurs in front of the camera / frame dimension and shape / onscreen and offscreen space / angle level height distance of framing
ELS, LS, MLS, MS, MCU, CU, ECU
human figure barely visible, more prominent but background dominates, knees up, chest up, face, portions
first in filmmaking it is the task of selecting and joining camera takes, second , in the finished film, the set of techniques that governs the relations among shots.
a transition bewetween shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating one shot as it goe s and replacing it with the next one
two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (color shape)
rhythmic relations editing
adjusting the length between shots to alter the amount of time we have to reflect
spatial relations between A and B
two points in space with an implied connection ; Kuleshov Effekt: any serioes of shots that in the absence of an establish shot prompts the spectator to infer a spaital whole on the basis of seeing only portions of espace.
editing that alternates shots of two or more liens of actions occuring in different places, usually simlulatenous
cuts that repeat part of allo f an action, thus expandings its viewing time and plot duraiton
also called "invisible editing," a system devised to minimize the audience's awareness of shot transitions, especially cuts, in order to improve the flow of the story and avoid interrupting the viewer's immersion in it. 180 degree system
in the continuity editing system, a cut that presents continous time from shot to shot but that mismatches the positions of figures or objects
Tools in Continuity Editing
Establishing Shots, Shot/Reverse Shot, Eye-line Match, REestablishing Shot, Match on Action,
Eye Line Match
A cut obeying the axis of action principle, in which the first shot shows a person off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees. The following shots from Dario Argento's The Stendhal Syndrome (La Sindrome di Stendhal, Italy, 1996), depict Anna looking at a painting, Brueghel's The Fall of Icarus.
Dimensions of FIlm Sound
rhhythm, fidelity, space, sound and perspective, time , sound bridge, silence, music
Sound in fFIlm
makes us notice things we wouldn't notice in real life, focus on certain things, draws attention somewhwere, a new montage element, sound should be used artfully , to aid the visuals rather than to just be there, used discreetly (Clair), Clair thinks we lose the "world of dreams " b/c sound is too real istic t oth e real world
Sound Design in M
"a silent film with sound" - self expressiveness of voices and noises, you notice more from it, also i nthe tradition of silent films, a lot of emphasis on gestures / facia l expressions, the noises dont just accompany images but also have theiro wn meaning, crescendo signature sounds, expressionist hheirtage , psyche's power to distort the real world
M Fritz Lang
memorable for its intersting and deliberate use of silence and the noises that pierce that silence isolates singular noises / no nondiegetic music in teh film / introduction of te film showcases all of the audio motifs that will recur throughoutthe film and will guide narrative points / corss cutting shows separate places, but the spaces are connected through sound / is the frugal use of sound a product of the technological times, or dioes it guide a speific means of interpretation? / music directs mood / whistle and horn will recur and will actually hold important in the narrative / sound effects create tension, procide warnings / later in the films the same sound effect occur but in a new context and with a new narrative meaning / lang keeps the film empty of sound for the most part - WHY? / expressionism in sound realism in image / emotional understanding altered / more active spectator/
story based in memory and fragmented history ; told by narrator ; follows an essentially conventional route to sound fluidity and narrative but is innovative in ovrall form / are sounds external or intern? where do they come from? who is the narrator and how does he have this knowledge? ambiguity fosters richness and mystique/ socially reflecting on apocalyptic tensions derived from cold war/ whispers in german place the film historically / what is the narrator's emotional investment? / music is reptitive obsessive unsettling enigmatic comes from the past rather than the furture / themee located infragmentation > speaks to the illusiveness of memory, narrator and sound tries to smooth this over despite the isual clash / sound used as a menas of cohesion genertaes fluidity despite visual stills
90 minute long take film, hybrid by nature: spectacle and narrative / neo-realism long take nonactors spatial consistentcy move back toward realism / a distance from narrative and emotional response due to a construction of an intellecutal cinema / the hermitage serves as a dream world, plays with memory and illusion / allows for interpretation / spectacle of technology and riches / cinema of attractions? clearly this film is a theatrical event, emphasis upon uniquenes in tech and style / clash between the spectaclr of the event and the immersion into th ehistorical event / demands an illectualy understnadding of the film Temporal space? public v. private scenarios? russian v. european? database narrative: introcuded to different histories, doesn't require a chrnological order webbassed ? hyperlink? discrete infinity? you dont jump you float....seamlessness nd fluidity no rush. "FILM IN ONE BREATH " v. Tarnation's Hyperventilation
Fast paced editing, sound constantly present, personal and emotional story • Very closed reading - Manipulative cinema • Jonathan is always performing? Is he stuck? Demands a reflection of truth. What is
genuine? What is staged and what isn&#039;t? • Made on an incredibly small budget (~$200+), was originally three hours • Autobiographical flashback - Both of himself and his mother • Quick montage of all different snippets covers a huge chunk of time (30+ years) • Mastery of iMovie editing, explores lots of play • Use of text keeps the viewer grounded in the personal history • Editorial rhythm linked to the music • Text is very expressive • Duration of takes (Manic v. the occasional long take) make for powerful play • Draws upon an artistic and experimental form of cinema • Database documentary - Draws upon personal history, pop culture, subjective
construction • Part of the DIY filmmaking age • Manic editing style. Tools of digital manipulation, along with makeup and costumes
that capture the home aesthetic. Narcissistic web-based language. DIY Aesthetic: MTV style filmmaking. Jerking camerawork. Grainy footage. Blunders can be stylistic choices. Use of programs, edits, music culture, sound manipulation
• Personal, amateur based • Build an audience through internet cultur
Digital Video / Computer Editing / Post production
Digital Video and Computer Editing: cheap filmmaking promotes personal documentors where directors are invested, personally and economically Instant feedback during production Shift in emphasis from production to post-production Can change, erase, revise image CGI sets, objects, characters Can construct in post-production Captures the modern feel of "realism" Hybrid of real and CGI TV screen is smaller, what should the director focus on?