FORENSIC MIDTERM

63 terms by ebutzm1

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Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals

2. The judicial case that set forth the current guidelines for determining the
admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal courts is

general acceptance of scientific principles

The case of Frye v. United States deals with the legal issue of

edmund locard

One of the earliest crime laboratories was founded by

polygraph examination

The following service does not normally lie within the expertise of the forensic scientist

all of the above

The effectiveness of an expert's testimony is almost always dependent on the

all of the above

The obligation to maintain the integrity of evidence belongs to which of the following

way the evidence is collected and presented for examination

The relative evidential value of laboratory test results is almost always dependent on the

nature of the evidence

The manner of collecting and preserving physical evidence at a crime scene is determined by the

all of the above

Physical evidence may be obtained from the

bloodstained clothing

All of the following items may be placed in an airtight container except

determining the natural cariations that exist in physical evidence

The evidence collector is not concerned with

spiral

Which of the following search patterns can be performed effectively by one person

exonerate an innocent suspect

Evidence having class characteristics can

individual

If the laboratory can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has ______________ characteristics

whether or not they have a common origin

A comparison analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examinations for the ultimate purpose of determining

this method will definitely demonstrate common origin when a match is made

The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because

CODIS

The computerized database used to store DNA information is

all of the above

Physical evidence that can be used to aid in a crime scene reconstruct-tion includes

algor mortis

The process by which the body temperature cools after death is known as

all of the above

Which of the following techniques can be used to estimate the time of death

the jury

Who ultimately determines the significance of physical evidence in a trial

2.54

One inch is equivalent to how many centimeters

100 celsius

Water boils at

color change in the presence of another chemical substance

Which of the following is not a physical property of a substance

weight per unit volume

Density is defined as

less than

A piece of glass is immersed in a liquid. It proceeds to float on the liquid's surface. This shows that the density of the glass is _____________ the density of the liquid

refractive index and density

The two most important physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons are

the exit side of the glass

The larger opening of a crater-shaped hole in glass made by the penetration of a projectile indicates

refractive index and density

If glass cannot be physically pieced together, then the control and question glass are best compared as to their

radial and concentric lines

The fracture pattern of glass usually has

parallel to the side on which the force was applied

Stress marks on the edge of a radial crack near the point of impact are

any given substance

Refractive index measures the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in

physical evidence

A crime can sometimes accurately be reconstructed solely on the presence or absence of

CODIS

A database application to DNA profiling is

IAFIS

A fingerprint can be positively identified through the database

practical limits

Modern analytical techniques have become so sensitive that the forensic examiner must be aware of the _ among materials when interpreting the significance of comparative data

distinction

The _ between individual and class evidence not is always easy to make.

exonerate

Physical evidence can be used to exclude or _ a person from suspicion of committing a crime

identification

The process of _ determines a substance's physical or chemical identity with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques

exclude

The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to _ all other substances from consideration

comparative

A(n) _ analysis subjects a suspect and a standard/ reference specimen to the same tests

weight

The _ accorded physical evidence during a trial is left entirely to the tier of fact.

probability

_ is the frequency of occurrence of an event

individual

Evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high degree of probability is said to possess _ characteristics

class

Evidence associated with a group and not a single source is said to possess _ characteristics

albert osborne

Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examinations are associated with this person

expert witness

In the courtroom, the person with specialized skills or knowledge that can determine the truth of a matter

autopsy

The medical dissection and examination of a body to determine the cause of death is called this

locard's principle

Describes the cross transfer of materials between objects

coroner

The title of person that can carry out the procedure in number 48.

forensic engineer

Expert that are concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstructionists, and the causes of fire or explosions

forensic science

application of science to law describes __

alphonse bertillion

A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was developed by __

francis galton

The scientist that devised the first definitive way to analyze/classify fingerprints was named ____

CSI

The name of the unit that is dispatched to retrieve evidence for lab analysis is ____

entomology

The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation is called __

odontology

In _ scientists can use the characteristics of teeth, their alignment, and the overall structure of the mouth to identify a body left in an unrecognizable state

toxicology

_ The unit that examines body fluid for the presence or absence of poisons or drugs

unaltered

The most important prerequisite for photographing a crime scene is to have is in a(n) ____ condition.

separate

Each item collected at the crime scene must be placed in a ____container.

airtight

An ___ container is not recommended packing material for blood stained garments

physical evidence

The term ___ encompasses all objects that can establish whether a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator.

corroborate

The value of class physical evidence lies in the ability lies to _ events with data in a manner that is, as nearly as possible, free of human error and bias.

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