AP US History Exam.. chapters 1-4

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Which of the following was not a civilization of South and Central America and Mexico?

Iroquois

In what modern country were the Incas primarily located?

Peru

Which of the following was not an element of Mayan culture prior to Columbus's arrival?

Horseback riding

What was the capital of the Aztec empire?

Tenochtitlán

The origins of human existence in North America began

With migrations from Eurasia over the Bering Strait

Which of the following did not play a major role in the growing interest in overseas exploration among Europeans?

Consolidation of Holy Roman Empire

Approximately what percentage of the European population perished in the Black Death (bubonic plague)?

one third

Which of the following nations was the original preeminent maritime power of the fifteenth century?

Portugal

Which of the following explorers did not sail under the flag of Portugal

Francisco Pizarro

Where did Columbus first land in 1492?

The Bahamas

Who established a lasting reputation as the most brutal of the Spanish conquistadores?

Hernando Cortés

What were the Spanish licenses, given to exact labor and tribute from native peoples in specific areas, called?

Encomiendas

What percentage of Hispaniola natives perished in the first years after European contact?

95%

Which of the following was not an American food introduced in the Old World after European contact?

Bananas

Which cash crop resulted in the rapid expansion of the African slave trade in the sixteenth century?

Sugar

Which of the following is not a tenet of mercantilism?

A nation should import as much wealth as possible

Where did England receive its first experience with colonization?

Ireland

Which of the following statements about French New World exploration is true?

French traders often assimilated into Indian culture

In regards to knowledge of the Americas prior to the fifteenth century, most Europeans

Were entirely unaware of the existence of the Americas

Seventeenth-century English colonial settlements

Were essentially business enterprises.

In London, the initial promoters of Jamestown encouraged colonists to focus on

The search for gold.

The "starving time" in Jamestown during the winter of 1609-1610 was partly the result of

Colonists being kept barricaded in their palisade by local Indians.

The cultivation of tobacco around Jamestown resulted in all the following EXCEPT

Improved relations with the local Indians.

The Virginia Company developed the "headright" system to

Attract new settlers to the colony.

Which of the following statements best characterizes the first years of Jamestown's existence?

The settlement survived despite an enormous loss of life.

When the House of Burgesses was created in Virginia in 1619,

Colonists were given a share of local political representation.

The Powhatan Indian Pocahontas

Created an interest in England to "civilize" Indians

Warfare between Englishmen and Powhatan Indians in Virginia

Included an Indian attack on Jamestown which killed hundreds of colonists.

The Virginia Company

Had its charter revoked by James I.

In which area of technology were Indians more advanced than the Virginia colonists?

Agriculture.

In its beginning, the Maryland colony

Was a refuge for English Catholics.

Bacon's Rebellion

Was a conflict between eastern and western Virginia.

The suppression of Bacon's Rebellion helped spur

Slavery in VIrginia.

During its first year in North America, the Plymouth colony

Survived in large part due to assistance from Indians.

Compared to King James I, King Charles I's treatment of Puritans

Was more hostile.

The Puritan merchants who founded the Massachusetts Bay Company

Carried out the largest single migration in the seventeenth century.

The Puritan merchants who founded the Massachusetts Bay Company

Carried out the largest single migration in the seventeenth century.

The Puritan founders in Massachusetts who described their colony as a "shining city upon a hill"

Felt they were creating a holy community that would be a model for the world.

One reason Roger Williams was deported from the Massachusetts colony was he

Said the land occupied by the colonists belonged to the Indians.

When it was established in 1644, the colony of Rhode Island

Was notable for its religious toleration.

In 1638, Anne Hutchison was deported from the Massachusetts colony because she

Challenged the prevailing assumptions of the proper role of women in society.

Over time in the seventeenth century, an increasing number of New England Puritans came to view Indian society

With fear and contempt.

In King Philip's War, Indians made effective use of the relatively new weapon,

The flintlock rifle.

The Fundamental Constitution for the Carolina colony

Was influenced by the English philosopher John Locke.

The development of the Carolina colony was notable in the

The northern and southern regions were economically and socially distinct from each other.

The New York colony

Emerged after a struggle between the English and the Dutch.

Like New York, the New Jersey colony

Had great ethnic and religious diversity.

Unlike Puritans, the Quakers

Rejected the doctrine of original sin.

William Penn

Was a man of great wealth who converted to Quakerism.

The English colonial settlements in the Caribbean

Concluded it was cheaper to buy new African slaves than to protect those they owned.

What social institution did Europeans in the Caribbean share with their counterparts in North America?

Slavery.

Regarding the origins of slavery in the North American English colonies,

Many colonies gradually embraced slavery as a solution to their labor troubles.

By 1700, the Spanish colonies north of Mexico

Added little economic value to the Spanish Empire.

Georgia was founded

To create a military barrier against the Spanish.

Originally, the Georgia colony excluded

Both free blacks and slaves.

In colonial North America, the "middle grounds" refers to a region in which

No one European or Indian group held a clear dominance.

Which of the following statement regarding the Navigation Acts (1660s) is FALSE?

English colonists could only produce products that were also sold in England.

The English Parliament enacted the Navigation Acts primarily to benefit

British business and merchants.

The Dominion of New England

Called for a single royal governor.

The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689

Saw an English king, James II, flee to the European continent.

Which of the following is not true about the colonial practice of indentured servitude?

Three-fourths of Chesapeake indentures were women.

Which of the following did not play a role in the decline of indentured servitude in the 1670s?

Soil exhaustion in the Chesapeake tidewater regions.

Which of the following is not true of colonial demographics?

The white mortality rate in the Chesapeake was higher than that of blacks.

How often did the average wife in the Chesapeake become pregnant?

Every two years.

Which of the following is not true of New England family life?

Women played a minor role in the agricultural economy.

Between 1700 and 1760, the number of Africans in the colonies

Increased tenfold.

Who were the most numerous free non-English immigrants to the colonies in the eighteenth century?

Scotch-Irish.

Approximately how large was the non-Indian population of the colonies by 1775?

2 million.

What crop served as the economic staple of early South Carolina and Georgia?

Rice.

Who was responsible for introducing indigo to the South Carolina economy?

Eliza Lucas.

What was the largest industrial enterprise anywhere int he English North American colonies?

Hasenclever Ironworks.

Which of the following was not an impediment to early colonial commerce?

Aversion to speculation.

Which of the following was not a central resource included in the "triangular" trade?

Tobacco.

Which of the following was not a consequence of the rise of consumerism?

A domestic consumer goods industry thrived in the colonies.

Which of the following is not true of slavery in the colonial era?

Whites often encourage formal slave marriages to cement stability.

Which of the following is not true of Puritan life?

Puritans followed the practice of primogeniture, passing all inherited property to the first-born son.

What was the largest city of the colonial era?

Philadelphia.

Which of the following was not a New Light evangelist of the Great Awakening?

Cotton Mather.

Which of the following experimented with smallpox inoculation?

Cotton Mather.

Who was the defendant in the 1734-1735 New York trial which removed some restrictions on the freedom of the press?

John Peter Zenger.

In the years after the Glorious Revolution, political power in England increasingly shifted toward

Parliament.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, England's administration of the colonies

was loose, decentralized, and inefficient.

The proposed Albany Plan of 1754

Revealed the difficulties colonies had in cooperating with each other.

During the eighteenth century, in North America, the French differed from the English in Indian relation in that the French

Were more tolerant of Indian cultures.

Through the first half of the eighteenth century, the Iroquois Confederacy formed agreements and traded with

Both France and England at the same time.

The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713

Transferred territory from the French to the English in North America.

In the aftermath of King George's War

Relations between the English, French, and Iroquois deteriorated.

During the fist stage (1754-1756) of the French and Indian War,

The Iroquois were allied with the English but remained largely passive.

During the French and Indian War, British leader William Pitt

gradually loosened his tight control over the colonists.

According to the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763,

France ceded Canada and all of its claims to land east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Great Britain.

As a result of the Seven Years' War, in North America, England

Confirmed its commercial supremacy and increased its political control of the settled regions.

For Indians in North America, British victory in the French and Indian War

Had disastrous effects on their future.

When he became British Prime Minister, George Grenville

Believed the American colonists had been indulged for far too long.

The Proclamation of 1763

Was supported by many Indian tribes.

The Sugar Act of 1764 was designed to

Damage the market for sugar grown in the colonies, eliminate the illegal sugar trade between the colonies, the French, and the West Indies, Establish new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers, and lower the colonial duties on molasses (all these answers are correct).

The Paxton Boys and the Regulators both

Demanded tax relief.

Legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765 adversely affected American

New England merchants, southern planters, small farmers, and urban workers (all these answers are correct).

Many colonists believed the legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765

Meant the British were trying to take away their tradition of self-government.

The Stamp Act of 1765

Helped to unite the colonies in opposition to the English government.

The "Virginia Resolves" stated that

Anyone who supported the right of Parliament to tax was an enemy of the colony.

In 1766, in response to colonial protests against the Stamp Act, the British government

Rescinded the Stamp Act.

The Declaratory Act of 1766

Was a sweeping assertion of Parliament's authority over the colonies.

The Mutiny (or Quartering) Act of 1765

Was regarded by objecting colonists as a form of taxation without consent.

The Townshend Duties of 1767

Were taxes on what ere called external transactions

Colonial protests against the Townshend Duties resulted in

Many colonists joining in nonimportation agreements

The Boston Massacre

Was transformed by some colonists into a symbol of British oppression.

In the 1760s, "country Whigs" were English colonists who

Considered the British government to be corrupt and oppressive.

In the eighteenth century, under the English government's theory of representation,

The American colonies were represented in Parliament.

The Tea Act of 1773

Followed a few years of relative calm between England and the American colonies, lowered the price of tea for American colonists, was intended to benefit a private British company, and provided no new tax on tea (all these answers are correct).

The colonial boycott of tea in 1773

Was led by women, who were the primary consumers of tea.

The Boston Tea Party of December 1773

Took place after Bostonians failed to turn away ships laden with tea.

Which of the following statements regarding the Coercive Acts is TRUE?

Massachusetts became a martyr in the cause of resistance.

In 1774, the First Continental Congress

Proposed that the colonies tax themselves at Parliament's demand.

In 1775, the Conciliatory Propositions

Was an appeal by the British government to colonial moderates.

The events of Lexington and Concord

Occurred before there was a formal American declaration of independence.

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