AP Human Geography Final (1st Semester)

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This set is the vocabulary from the sheet entitled, "1st Semester's Sexy Geography Study Suggestions" (Catch Up Units 1 and 2 and Units 1, 2, and 3)

environmental determinism

a country's environment determines its success

possibilism

any country can overcome its environmental disadvantages

ethnocentrism

the belief that your people/ethnic group are better

superpower

a country that is culturally, economically, and militarily dominant

scale

the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it

mercator projection

A method of making maps in which the Earth's surface is shown as a rectangle; exaggerates the size of areas

robinson projection

map projection of a world map with no direction

azimuthal projection

a map projection of polar areas

equal area projection

an interrupted, equal-area, composite map projection used for world maps

aggregation

the level at which information is revealed on a map

cartogram

maps that swell and shrink depending on big or small numbers for that country/region

chloropleth map

a map that shows data with colors

isoline map

A map containing continuous lines joining all points of identical value

imperialism

when a group comes in and crushes another group, steals their women and gold and children and forces them into an unfair trade relationship

mercantilism

creating a favorable balance of trade WITH FORCE

inflation

a general and progressive increase in prices

Berlin Conference

the peaceful splitting of Africa to colonies of Portugal, Belgium, Britain and Germany

mono-economy

an economy with only 1 product being sold

capital

money for investment into business

primate city

cities more than twice the size of the next largest city

infrastructure

Services and facilities including roads, water, sewer, emergency services, parks,

forward capital

a new capital that was created for a historical or economical reason

brain drain

the large-scale emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity, political instability, or health risks

demilitarized zone (DMZ)

a zone from which military forces or operations or installations are prohibited

Cold War

NATO vs Warsaw Pact or "First World" vs "Second World"

Korean War

North Korea vs South Korea (UN involved)

Vietnam War

North Vietnam vs South Vietnam (UN not involved)

mutually assured destruction

the knowledge that if one side shoots a deadly weapon, the other side will immediately do the same, and both sides will die

nuclear club

the nations possessing nuclear weapons (China, France, Russia, UK, USA)

nuclear non-proliferation treaty

agreement of 189 states to not spread nuclear weapons across the globe, disarm nuclear weapons that currently exist, and help member states with out nuclear weapons develop nuclear energy

treaty

a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

devolution

the process of allowing a certain part of a country to have freedoms

balkanization

the act of dividing a region or state into smaller regions or states and the two parts often very hostile or uncooperative towards each other

velvet divorce

the splitting of Czechoslavokia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia

ethnic cleansing

massive killing of an ethnic group in the hope of having them leave an area

genocide

massive killing of an ethnic group in the hope of having them completely obliterated

spatial perspective

to observe the physical and human characteristics of our planet as they vary over space, looking specifically for patterns and processes

remote sensing

gaining information about an object without coming in direct contact with it

survey

a method of collecting information from people about their characteristics, behaviors, attitudes, or perceptions. ...

census

the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population

field study

a trip (cough vacation cough) to a place to make qualitative observations

toponomy

the study of the origins of place names

absolute location

a location in latitude and longitude

relative location

a location of a place determined by what's closest around you

site

describing a place based on its resources and land

situation

describing a place based on its location to other places

cultural landscape

combination of environmental and human influences on the environment

formal region

an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics

functional region

an area that is a person's daily commute

vernacular region

an area that is a person's mental map

globalization

when ideas, values, beliefs, and cultural traits are becoming increasingly shared throughout the world as interconnectedness increases

local diversity

when there are differences that are maintainted around the world between places/cultural groups no matter how much globalization spreads

cultural hearth

the origin of a particular cultural trait

acculturation

when a dominant group moves into a weaker culture and forces the culture onto the weaker group abruptly

assimilation

when a weaker group moves into a dominant culture by choice and adopts the traits of the dominant group gradually

sequence occupancy

several different cultural groups have occupied that territory so you will see different layers in modern culture

expansion diffusion

the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area

hierarchal diffusion

spread of an idea through an established structure usually from people or areas of power down to other people or areas

contagious diffusion

spread of an idea/trait/concept through a group of peole or an area equally without regard to social class, economic position, or position of power

stimulus diffusion

the spread of an underlying principle even though the new groups "remix" your idea

relocation diffusion

people move and they take their culture with them

migrant diffusion

an idea migrates outwards, but overtime fades out at the origin

time-distance decay model

model that shows the farther away two places are, the less likely they are to have diffusion

correlation

a measurement of how related two variables under study are related

crude birth rate

the childbirths per 1,000 people per year

crude death rate

the deaths per 1,000 people per year

natural rate of increase

the CBR minus the CDR

population growth rate

the CBR minus the CDR plus the immigrants minus the emmigrants

total fertility rate

the average number of childbirths a woman has from the age of 15 to 49

doubling rate

the length of time required for a population to double in size

dependency ratio

a measure of the dependence that non-working people have on working people

life expectancy

the number of years expcected to live for bablies born this year

infant mortality rate

the number of babies who die becore their first birthday out of 1000 live births

demographic transition model

a model that explains the changing population (High stationary, Early expanding, Late expanding, Late stationary)

population pyramid

a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population which normally forms the shape of a pyramid

population change

how a population changes religiously, ethnicly, etc

overpopulation

too many people with too little resources

sustainability

the capacity to endure

Thomas Malthus

said food grows linearly, population grows exponentially, and Britain was a closed system

Ester Boserup

said population density creates more agricultural output and humans will figure out ways of producing more food on the same amount of land rather than starve to death

carrying capacity

the maximum population size of a given species that an area can sustain without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future

push factor

a social, political, economic, or environmental force that drives people from a location

pull factor

a social, political, economic, or environmental attraction to a new area that draws people from a previous location

gravity model

population1 X population 2/density squared

culture

the way a group of people live

popular culture

a large group of people; heterogeneous group, changes quickly, dispersed at a global scale; tends to share customs with a large number of people

folk culture

small, isolated groups; homogenous groups; slow to change; clustered at a local scale; traditional societies with little interaction with other groups

taboo

strong social prohibition relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden based on religious beliefs

secular

non-religious

wattle

a mat of woven sticks and weed used in wall construction

literary tradition

help cultural continuity by having a written word

Indo-European Family

made of of Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian branches mainly

Sino-Tibetan Family

Mandarin the most spoken language in this family

Afro-Asiatic Family

language family from North Africa and the Middle East; Arabic is the most spoken language from this family

standard language

the dialect that is seen as proper in a language

vulgar language

variants of the standard language that have regional accents that can reveal a person's home

language

systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols

British Received Pronounciation (BRP)

the accent of Standard English in England

isogloss

transition zone surrounding a particular linguistic feature

language divergence

when two dialects become mutually unintelligible, two separate languages emerge (involves time and isolation)

Basque

belongs to the language family of Basque

Khoisan

belongs to the language family of Khoisan

Conquest (Kurgan Hearth) Theory

positive checks; language spread west as people conqured territory using superior technology and animals

Agriculture (Anatolian Hearth) Theory

people sharing agriculture techniques diffused the language through Europe

lingua franca

common language used when conducting business with two people who's primary language is not the same

pidgin

simple way of getting understood by someone who doesn't speak your language

creolization

process of a pidgin becoming real

Afrikaans

an official creole of the Republic of South Africa; closely related to Dutch and Flemish

Francophone

the French speaking part of the world

core

the wealthiest countries in the world belong to this category

semi-periphery

the countries that are not poor but not wealthy belong to this category

periphery

the poorest countries in the world belong to this category

primary jobs (extractive jobs)

most basic jobs (hunting/gathering, nomadic herding, mining, fishing, forestrym, agriculture)

secondary jobs

construction, shipbuilding, automobile production, textile production, breweries and bottlers, energy producers

service jobs (tertiary jobs)

waiting tables, plumbers, teachers

quinary jobs

most complex jobs; have something before or after name

quaternary jobs

finance, insurance, real estate

remittances

a transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her home country

wet foot dry foot policy

If Cubans fleeing to the United States are found in the water, they are sent back to Cuba; if they are found on land, they are allowed to stay here

arithmetic density

the density of all the land in a place

physiologic density

the density of only the arable land in a place

syncretic religion

religions who have borrowed ideas from other religions

ethnic religion

don't seek converts outside the group, tend to be spatially concentrated, holidays tend to be seasonal, can be a member of the cultural group and not believe in the theology of the faith, very old/prehistoric, no clergy, relocation diffusion

universalizing religion

seek converts, scattered all over the world, holidays tend to be historic events, have to believe in theology to be a member, younger than ethnic religions, clergy, hierarchical diffuision

Iman

Muslim teacher

clergy

the formal religious leadership within a given religion

proselytizing

seeking converts

denomination

a group of religious congregations having its own organization and a distinctive faith

sect

a subdivision of a denomination

animism

the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls

cosmogony

the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe

pilgrimidge

to follow a prescribed historical/environmental route

fundamentalism

the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth

deist

a person who believes that God does not have interaction with humans (no miracles)

interfaith dispute

a dispute happening between two different religions

intrafaith dispute

a dispute happening within a religion

Pakistan/India

Hindu origin

Nepal

Buddhism origin

Israel

Christian/Judaism origin

Arabian Peninsula (Mecca)

Islam origin

India

Jainism/Sikhism origin

Roman Catholic

religion located in Southern Europe, Phillippines

Prostestant

religion located in Northern Europe, United States

Sunni Muslim

religion located in Northern Africa

Sikhism

religion located in Punjab, India

Hinduism, Islam, Jainism

religions located in India

Morman

religion located in Utah

Orthodox

religion located in Greece, Turkey

Quebec, Ireland, Belgium

places with intrafaith dipute between Protestants and Catholics (3)

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