Which of the following hormones has a specific target organ and does not affect the other tissues?
Which of the following concepts explains the fact that target cells do not have a great number of receptors and normal circulating blood concentrations of hormones are very low?
Blood serum is essentially the same as plasma, except that plasma contains_____ and serums does not.
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem:
FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through:
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
These increase with parasitic infections, allergies, collagen diseases, and diseases of the spleen and CNS:
Hormonal action is characterized by all of the following except:
Degrading and removal of other hormones
When red blood cells transport respiratory gases:
oxygen binds to the heme portion while carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion
In hemolytic disease of the new born
The babys blood cells hemolyze because anti-Rh antibodies from the mother cross the placenta
Cells responding to peptide hormones go through a sequence of reactions involving receptors and kinase activation. It is necessary for 1st and 2nd messengers to communicate, this is possible because:
G protein acts as the link between 1st and 2nd messengers
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a homrone is dependent on:
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
During the life of RBC's:
RBC's are unable to synthesize proteins, grow, or undergo mitotic division
The blood cell that makes up 3-8% of the WBC and has a large horseshoe shaped nucleus is the:
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you
major histocompatability complex proteins
With an allergy, symptoms are caused when allergens bind to IgE on membranes of ___ and stimulate them to release ___.
Mast cells and basophils, histamine
The ____ collects blood from all other veins draining the myocardium and returns this bood to the right atrium.
On the electrocardiogram, repolarization of the atria is represented by the:
it does not appear on the EKG since it is obscured by the QRS complex
In a resting person, a red blood cell leaving the left ventricle will arrive back there in:
Of the pathways listed, which correctly describes a route that blood can take:
left atrium>bicuspid valve>left ventricle>aortice semilunar valve
The most correct sequence in the cardiac conduction system is:
SA node>AV node>AV bundle> bundle branches> Purkinje Fibers
Which of the following types of low venous return (LVR) shock occurs when released histamien causes extensive generalized vasodialation?
Which is NOT one of the three major branches arising from the aortic arch?
Righ Common Carotid Artery
Venous pooling in a solider at attention for a long time occurs mainly when the mechanism fails:
skeletal muscle pump
An injection of antibody is an example of which of the following classes of immunity?
artificial passive immunity
When a white blood cell oozes thru the gap between endotheilial cells, we say it has done:
If you were inoculated with hepatitis A vaccine, a population of this type of cell would begin to make the appropriate antibody
The aortic semilunar valve shuts when pressure in the aortic is ___ and results in the ___ heart sound
Greater than in the left ventricle, dupp (S2)
Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is ___ causing the aortic valve to ___.
less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open
In the cardiovascular system, the ____ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the ___ side of the heart
If the electrocardiogram exhibits a nodal rhythm:
the heart is beating at a slow rate set by the AV node
An individual with severe chest pain, radiating to the neck and left arm shows symptoms of
If the chordae tendineae of an animals heart were cut, the most likely effect would be
The most common capillary beds in teh body are:
Continuous capillary with tight junctions & intercellular clefts
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than ___ mmHg systolic or ___mmHg diastolic
According to the principle of ___ , blood in th emiddle or an artery flows faster than that near walls.
This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus, it begins ot shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in elderly
The Frank-Starling law of the heart says that
the volume of blood entering the heart difrectly affects the force of contraction
In fetal circulation, the ___ and the ___ insure that most right side blood flow bypasses the lungs
Foramen ovale and ductus anteriosus
Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?
it drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg
Which buffer system accounts for three quarters of all the chemical buffering of the body fluids?
This hormone, made by the hypothalamus, stimulates collecting ducts and distal convulated tubules to reatin more water:
Which of the following is least likely to stimulate the thirst center in the hypothalamus?
decreased blood osmolarity
The role the kidney plays in the homeostasis of the body includes all of the following except to:
control lymphocyte count
Which of the following is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli?
proximal convoluted tubule
When blood pressure drops, the jg cells of the kidney secrete renin which indirectly results in
a stimulation of the sense of thirst
The most correct sequence of organs thru which the egg passes from the ovary to the outside is:
infundibulum>isthmus of fallopian tube>body of uterus>cervix>vagina
In a normal person, almost all glucose in the flitrate is transported back into the body in this area
proximal convoluted tubule
During the physical examination of a male, the doctor may palpate the inguinal canal and have the patient cough. What condition could be diagnosed with this test?
To regulate temperature of testes, which of the following muscles raises and lowers the scrotum?
How is it that an embryo differentiates to be a male?
The Y chromosome has the testis-determining factor gene.
The most correct route for the sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the outside is:
epididymis>ductus deferens>ampulla>ejaculatory duct> urethra
If a pregnant woman has a big increase in blood pressure and edema, she is likely suffering from:
Which of the following statement is false?
Cervical cancer is more common among women who have six or more children
Which of the following does not occur with the climateric changes in hormone secretions:
decreased cholesterol levels
After ovulation, which of the following does not occur during the luteal phase?
new follicles begin developing
The most correct sequence of fluid flow thru the kidney is :
Glomerular capsule>pct>nephron loop>dct>collecting duct
What is the ratio of sperm that reach the egg cell out of those sperm that begin the journey?
1 out of 100,000
Which of the following stages is a hollow sphere with a single layer of squamous cells?
Which of the following structures forms the umbilical cord and becomes part of the urinary bladder?
The shunt that diverts blood past the fetal linings connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta is the:
This type of chemical can cross the placenta from the maternal circulation and cause defects:
The most prevalent cation in plasma is ___ and the most prevalent anion in intracellular fluid is ___.
An increase in blood glucose will stimulate the release of _____ and most of any excess glucose will be stored as_____.
Of the macronutrients we consume, ___ is required in the largest daily quanity and _____ is required in the least daily quantity.
Which one of the following vessels would have the highest concentration of glucose?
Hepatic portal vein
The inner membrane of mitochondria or mitochondria cristae contains the protein called ___, which harnesses electrical energy to produce ATP by ____.
ATP synthase; chemiosmosis
The most common lung cancer (characterized by keratin tissue replacing lung tissue) is
squamous cell carcinoma
This is the most correct sequence of air passage from the nose to the alveoli:
In this condition, the walls of the alveoli are destroyed, reducing surface area for respiration:
Which of the following substances secreted by the cells of the stomach wall is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine?
Which of the following does not occur within the large intestine?
digestion of cellulose by digestive enzymes
Which of the following lipoprotein categories containes the least total lipid and yet helps remove excess cholesterol from the body?
Which of the following terms describes the transfer of an amino group (NH2) from an amino acid to another molecule?
If your chest expands, you predict the intrapulmonary pressure to ___ because of ___ law:
Particle stuck in mucus are moved out of the bronchioles, bronchi, & trachea to the ____ by ____.
pharynx; movement of cilia
The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because______.
They produce a lubricant, preventing friction between the lungs and the thoracic wall.
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases_____.
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ______.
reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Oxidative phosphorylation is:
production of ATP from the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the _____.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
In the first step of the Kreb's Cycle, oxaloacetic acid reacts with what to produce citric acid?
Which molecule will undergo different reactions depending on whether oxygen is plentiful or not?
Predict what would happen if a person's arterial PCO2 increases.
His or her breathing rate and depth of breathing will increase
The amount of _____ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you digest this food?
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which enzyme will help digest the meal?
Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase converts ___ to ___.
glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate, 1,3 biphosphoglycerate