Anatomy/Physiology Final

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A/P 2 Final Exam

Hyperparathyroidism causes which of the following?

Bone resorption and renal calculi

Which of the following hormones has a specific target organ and does not affect the other tissues?

Melatonin

The pigment found in RBC's is

Hemoglobin

Too little iodine intake will lead to

Endemic goiter

Which of these is not found in blood?

Glycogen

Blood has all of the functions except

Hormone production

Which of the following concepts explains the fact that target cells do not have a great number of receptors and normal circulating blood concentrations of hormones are very low?

Enzyme amplification

The stress response includes all of the following except the

delay stage

A blood clot that breaks away and moves through the circulation is called an

embolus

Driving in congested traffic may cause release of which of these pituitary hormones?

ACTH

Which pituitary hormone stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone?

LH

Blood serum is essentially the same as plasma, except that plasma contains_____ and serums does not.

Fibrinogen

A lack of antidiuretic homrone will lead to

Diabetes insipidus

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem:

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:

aldosterone

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through:

targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

These increase with parasitic infections, allergies, collagen diseases, and diseases of the spleen and CNS:

eosinophils

James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16g/100ml blood, this is:

Within the normal range

What is the average normal pH of blood?

7.4

An individual who is blood type A negative:

Can donate to types A, and AB, but not to type O

Hormonal action is characterized by all of the following except:

Degrading and removal of other hormones

Sympathetic nerve stimuli are responsible for the release of

Norepinepherine

Which hormone is NOT secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?

ANP

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of blood?

the pH of blood varies between 7.15-7.25

The terms biconcave and non-nucleated apply to which cell type?

Red blood cells

When red blood cells transport respiratory gases:

oxygen binds to the heme portion while carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion

Polycythemia can occur when a person is

at high altitudes for a long time

The adrenal gland produces all of the following homrones except:

renin

The metabolic rate of all body tissues is controlled by

TH

Iodine is required for the synthesis of

thyroid hormone

Clot formation includes the conversion of fibrinogen into__ by the enzyme___.

Fibrin, thrombin

In hemolytic disease of the new born

The babys blood cells hemolyze because anti-Rh antibodies from the mother cross the placenta

Blood is a ___ tissue:

Connective

All of the following are involved in clot formation except:

Plasmin

Biliverdin, bilirubin, and stercobilin are waste products of

Heme

Cells responding to peptide hormones go through a sequence of reactions involving receptors and kinase activation. It is necessary for 1st and 2nd messengers to communicate, this is possible because:

G protein acts as the link between 1st and 2nd messengers

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a homrone is dependent on:

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

During the life of RBC's:

RBC's are unable to synthesize proteins, grow, or undergo mitotic division

Blood Group AB:

Can receive blood from Group A, B, O or Group AB

Which organ doesn't produce and secrete any hormones?

Large intestine

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates gluccorticoid secretion by the adrenal cortex

The __ cells of the islets of langerhans secrete glucagon

Alpha

A second messenger for hormone response is:

cAMP

The antagonist of PTH is ____ which is produced by the ____:

calcitonin; thyroid

Follicular cells in the thyroid produce:

T3

In the adrenal gland, androgens, can be found in the:

Zona Reticularis

The normal adult male hematocrit is about

47%

The blood cell that makes up 3-8% of the WBC and has a large horseshoe shaped nucleus is the:

monocyte

This includes RBC's, reticulocytes, WBC's and platelets

CBC

Which sequence is correct for the following events?

3, 4, 1, 2

The coronal arteries arise from

proximal end of the aorta

Being larger than the right ventricle, the left ventricle pumps more blood in each beat

False

B lymphoctyes, when they become plasma cells

secrete antibodies

Antibodies associated with blood group antigens cause

agglutination

_____ are destroyed by the AIDs Virus

Helper T Cells

The antigen-binding sites of an antibody molecule are found:

at the tips of the variable regions

These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you

major histocompatability complex proteins

With an allergy, symptoms are caused when allergens bind to IgE on membranes of ___ and stimulate them to release ___.

Mast cells and basophils, histamine

The ____ collects blood from all other veins draining the myocardium and returns this bood to the right atrium.

Coronary sinus

On the electrocardiogram, repolarization of the atria is represented by the:

it does not appear on the EKG since it is obscured by the QRS complex

The QRS complex represents

ventricular depolarization

In a resting person, a red blood cell leaving the left ventricle will arrive back there in:

60 seconds

Of the pathways listed, which correctly describes a route that blood can take:

left atrium>bicuspid valve>left ventricle>aortice semilunar valve

The most correct sequence in the cardiac conduction system is:

SA node>AV node>AV bundle> bundle branches> Purkinje Fibers

The QRS interval on the electrocardiogram

Comes after the P Wave

Which of the following types of low venous return (LVR) shock occurs when released histamien causes extensive generalized vasodialation?

Anaphylactic shock

Which is NOT one of the three major branches arising from the aortic arch?

Righ Common Carotid Artery

These have the the most control of perfusion of a capillary bed

Precapillary sphincters

All of these factors may increase peripheral resistance except:

blood type

Venous pooling in a solider at attention for a long time occurs mainly when the mechanism fails:

skeletal muscle pump

Blood flows to the liver form the superior mesenteric ven throug the

hepatic portal

Antibodies can assist in

all of the above

Which statement is incorrect?

Lymphatic capillaries fill when tissue fluid pressure is low

Which inhibitors of microbrial growth is a component of perspiration?

lactic acid

An injection of antibody is an example of which of the following classes of immunity?

artificial passive immunity

When a white blood cell oozes thru the gap between endotheilial cells, we say it has done:

diapedesis

If you were inoculated with hepatitis A vaccine, a population of this type of cell would begin to make the appropriate antibody

B lymphocytes

The aortic semilunar valve shuts when pressure in the aortic is ___ and results in the ___ heart sound

Greater than in the left ventricle, dupp (S2)

The heart rate tends to be higher in

woman than in men

Blood moves into the aorta when the pressure in the aorta is ___ causing the aortic valve to ___.

less than the pressure in the left ventricle; open

Blood normally leaves the right ventricle thru

the pulmonary semi-lunar valve

In the cardiovascular system, the ____ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the ___ side of the heart

pulmonary; right

If the electrocardiogram exhibits a nodal rhythm:

the heart is beating at a slow rate set by the AV node

An individual with severe chest pain, radiating to the neck and left arm shows symptoms of

myocardial infarction

If the chordae tendineae of an animals heart were cut, the most likely effect would be

valvular prolapse

The most common capillary beds in teh body are:

Continuous capillary with tight junctions & intercellular clefts

Excessive fluid loss by sweating a hemmorhage is most likely to cause ___ shock.

hypovolemic

In humans, there is no such thing as

left brachiocephalic artery

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than ___ mmHg systolic or ___mmHg diastolic

140;90

Which hormone increases blood pressure?

Angiotensin II

According to the principle of ___ , blood in th emiddle or an artery flows faster than that near walls.

Laminar flow

Valves are found in:

veins and lymphatic vessels

Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called:

globulins

Which of these is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?

Fever

In order for a helper T cell to recognize an antigen, the antigen must be bound to

an MHC protein

This lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus, it begins ot shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in elderly

thymus

Interferons:

interfere with viral replication within cells

The Frank-Starling law of the heart says that

the volume of blood entering the heart difrectly affects the force of contraction

In fetal circulation, the ___ and the ___ insure that most right side blood flow bypasses the lungs

Foramen ovale and ductus anteriosus

Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?

it drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg

Which buffer system accounts for three quarters of all the chemical buffering of the body fluids?

Protein

This hormone, made by the hypothalamus, stimulates collecting ducts and distal convulated tubules to reatin more water:

ADH

Which condition would be most likely to stimulate adosterone secretion?

hyponatremia

Which of the following is least likely to stimulate the thirst center in the hypothalamus?

decreased blood osmolarity

Deficiency of this mineral is a cause of tetany:

calcium

The role the kidney plays in the homeostasis of the body includes all of the following except to:

control lymphocyte count

Which of the following is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli?

proximal convoluted tubule

When blood pressure drops, the jg cells of the kidney secrete renin which indirectly results in

a stimulation of the sense of thirst

Which of the following types of diabetes is caused by hypersecretion of cortisol?

Adrenal diabetes

The major nitrogenous waste product in humans is

urea

The most correct sequence of organs thru which the egg passes from the ovary to the outside is:

infundibulum>isthmus of fallopian tube>body of uterus>cervix>vagina

In a normal person, almost all glucose in the flitrate is transported back into the body in this area

proximal convoluted tubule

This part of the sperm contains enzymes that are used to penetrate the egg

acrosome

During the physical examination of a male, the doctor may palpate the inguinal canal and have the patient cough. What condition could be diagnosed with this test?

inguinal hernia

To regulate temperature of testes, which of the following muscles raises and lowers the scrotum?

cremaster muscle

Sperm maturation and storage occurs mainly in which of the following structures?

Epedidymis

How is it that an embryo differentiates to be a male?

The Y chromosome has the testis-determining factor gene.

The most correct route for the sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the outside is:

epididymis>ductus deferens>ampulla>ejaculatory duct> urethra

An enlargement of this organ will impair both sexual reproduction and voiding in the man:

prostate

The midpiece of the spermaozoan tail contains the:

mitochondria

If a pregnant woman has a big increase in blood pressure and edema, she is likely suffering from:

pre-eclampsia

The hormone directly responsible for promoting uterine conractions during labor is:

oxytocin

Which of the following statements is true?

the uterus tilts forward over the urinary bladder

Which of the following statement is false?

Cervical cancer is more common among women who have six or more children

Which of the following does not occur with the climateric changes in hormone secretions:

decreased cholesterol levels

After ovulation, which of the following does not occur during the luteal phase?

new follicles begin developing

Which hormone causes enlargement of uterus and softening of the pubic symphysis?

estrogen

The most correct sequence of fluid flow thru the kidney is :

Glomerular capsule>pct>nephron loop>dct>collecting duct

Which of the following is most effective method of breast cancer treatment?

all equally effective

The initial depolarization of the egg membrane at fertilization is called:

fast block

What is the ratio of sperm that reach the egg cell out of those sperm that begin the journey?

1 out of 100,000

Which of the following stages is a hollow sphere with a single layer of squamous cells?

blastocyst (blastula)

Which of the following structures forms the umbilical cord and becomes part of the urinary bladder?

aliantois

The shunt that diverts blood past the fetal linings connecting the pulmonary trunk to the aorta is the:

ductus arteriousus

This is the most correct sequence of development :

Zygote>morula>plastocyst>embryo>fetus

This type of chemical can cross the placenta from the maternal circulation and cause defects:

teratogen

The blastocyst attaches to and enters the endometrium during:

implantation

The developing embryo is surrounded by and bathed in

amniotic fluid

Electrolytes

Dissociate into anions and cations

The most prevalent cation in plasma is ___ and the most prevalent anion in intracellular fluid is ___.

sodium; phosphate

Implantation occurs ____ after fertilization

6 days

Which of the following functions in both the urinary and reproductive system

Urethra

The corpus luteum secretes

estrogen and progesterone

In addition to reabsorption, the renal tubule is associated with

secretion

Early pregnancy tests detect___ in urine.

Human chorionci gonadotropin

Which of the following can't pass filtration membranes in kidneys?

large proteins

The nephron has 2 parts, they are the:

glomerulus and renal tubule

Which femal reproductive structure is between the uterus and ovary?

Fallopian tube

Reabsorption moves molecules from the ___ into the ___

Renal tubules; peritubular capillaries

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