Chapter 9 Section 2: Photosynthesis

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What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO₂(g) + 6H₂0(g) ➔ C₆H₁₂O₆(s) + O₂(g)
(g) - gas
(s) - solid
➔ light and chlorophyll

The ____ of a plant is the major photosynthesis organ. Its flat surface enables the maximum of _____ to be captured.

leaf,light

Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes capture about _% of the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis.

1%

A chloroplast has an _____ membrane and an _____ membrane.

outer, inner

The space inside the inner membrane is the ______

stroma

Within the stroma is the ....

thylakoid membrane

thylakoid membrane

Flat, disc-like sacs which contain molecules that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.

The first stage of photosynthesis begins when light waves hit the __________

thylakoids

What is electromagnetic radiation?

Energy that can travel through empty space in the form of waves

Light is a form of

electromagnetic radiation

Light travels from the source (sun) as

waves of energy

The first phase of photosynthesis involves

the trapping of light

pigment

a substance that absorbs certain wavelengths (colors) of light and commonly reflects all of the others

In plants, light energy is harvested by ________ that are located in the _________ membrane of chloroplasts

pigments, thylakoid

chlorophyll

a green pigment in the chloroplasts that absorbs light energy to start photosynthesis

What kind of light does chlorophyll absorb and reflect?

Absorbs blue and red light
Reflects yellow and green light, which makes plants appear green

What are the two types of chlorophyll?

chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b

Plants also have pigments called __________

carotenoids

What do carotenoids absorb and reflect?

Absorb blue and green light
Reflect yellow, orange, and red light

When chlorophyll fades away in the fall, the colors of ___________ are exposed

carotenoids

Carotenoids aid photosynthesis by

allowing plants to absorb additional light energy

When light hits a thylakoid, energy is absorbed by

pigment molecules

Each wavelength has a characteristic amount of

energy

photon

a packet of energy which is a certain amount

Short wavelengths =

high energy and high frequency

Long wavelengths =

low energy and low frequency

frequency

number of waves that pass a given point in a specific amount of time. Freqemcy = Hz (hertz)

Color is determined by the

wavelength

Sunlight is a

mixture of colors

Red light has ___ energy, while violet light has ____ energy. (ROYGBIV)

low, high

When sunlight strikes the leaf, the energy of the lightwaves is absorbed by

chlorophyll

Different pigments absorb different ___________

wavelengths

Wavelengths not absorbed is

reflected

Photosynthetic pigments are located in the

chloroplast

Each chloroplast contains stacks of membrane called

thylakoids

Surrounding the thylakoids is a fluid called

stroma

During photosynthesis, one electron transport chain provides energy to make ___, while the other provides energy to make _____

ATP, NADPH

What are the 2 major reactions in photosynthesis?

light reaction and dark reaction

What is the dark reaction also called?

Carbon fixation reaction or Calvin Cycle

2nd Law of Thermodynamics states no energy conversion is ___% efficient

100

Autotroph absorbs __% of radiant energy that reaches it from the sun

20

Only _% of the radiant energy that strikes the leaf can be stored in ___

8, ATP

What are three environmental factors that affect photosynthesis?

light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature

The distance between crest and trophs is

wavelength

cellular respiration

cells make the carbon in glucose into stable CO₂ molecules and produce energy for ATP

ATP goes where during the light reaction?

electron transport chain

Where is the electron transport chain?

inner membrane of mitochondria

What process is the mitochondria part of?

respiration

What splits simultaneously as electrons are being energized? (in electron transport chains)

H₂O

CO₂ comes in where from the leaf in the dark reaction then combines with what?

stoma/stomata, RUDP (5C compound)

After CO₂ combines with RUDP to make a 6C compound what happens?

it splits apart and forms two 3C compounds (PGA)

What is made after PGA splits apart and adds 6 ATP and 6 NADPH?

PGAL

How many ATP is used to power dark reaction?

3 ATP used, 6 ATP made

What is RUDP?

5C compound

What is PGA?

3C compound from when the 6C compound splits

What is PGAL?

3C compound with 6 ATP and 6 NADPH added to it

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