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Which of these is a biotic component of an enviroment?
>bacteria on the surface of your skin
>light
>the avalibility of water
>the mineral supplements you consume
>the temperature where you live

>bacteria onthe surface of your skin.

Which action influences the abiotic components of an organism's environment?
Introduction of exotics.
Extinction of predators.
Water pollution.
Interactions with offspring.

Water pollution.

Which aspects of a region's climate have the most impact on plants and animals?
Soil composition and temperature.
Temperature and moisture.
Moisture and wind.
Sunlight and wind.

Temperature and moisture.

True or false? Weather is defined as the prevailing long-term atmospheric conditions in a particular region.
True
False

False

Which of the following statements about Hadley cells is true?
Warm air expands and rises from the surface of the atmosphere around the poles.
As warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools.
The moisture in cool air condenses into clouds and precipitates because cool air holds more moisture than warm air.
Warm air begins to cool as it starts to sink at about 30° North and South latitude.

Correct

As warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools.

Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?
South Pole.
Equator
North Pole.
30° North and South latitude

Equator

What are rain shadows?
Dry regions on the windward side of mountain ranges.
Wet regions on the windward side of mountain ranges.
Wet regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
Dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Which desert is caused by a Hadley cell?
Patagonian Desert in Argentina.
Desert next to the Rockies.
Atacama Desert in Chile.
Sahara Desert in Africa.

Sahara Desert in Africa

Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
the presence of algae
relatively cool water
relatively stable water temperature
dead organic matter
low oxygen level

the presence of algae

The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.
region that receives abundant sunlight
region where phytoplankton are found
region that receives little or no light
substrate at the bottom of the body of water
region that is flooded at high tide and not covered by water at low tide

substrate at the bottom of the body of water

The _____ biome is the largest of Earth's biomes.
marine
grassland
freshwater
rain forest
desert

marine

A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.
benthic zone
intertidal zone
aphotic zone
estuary
photic zone

estuary

What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and light
temperature and rainfall
light and rainfall
plants and animals
temperature and plants

temperature and rainfall

Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
temperate broadleaf forest
coniferous forest
desert
temperate grassland
tropical rain forest

desert

Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
tundra
coniferous forest
temperate broadleaf forest
temperate grassland
desert

coniferous forest

Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
temperate grassland
coniferous forest
tropical rain forest
desert
tundra

tropical rain forest

Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
taiga
tropical forest
tundra
coniferous forest
desert

tundra

How would an ecologist likely explain the expansion of the cattle egret?
Climatic factors, such as temperature and precipitation provide suitable habitat for cattle egrets.
A habitat left unoccupied by native herons and egrets met the biotic and abiotic requirements of the cattle egret transplants and their descendants.
There are no natural predators for cattle egrets in the New World, so they continue to expand their range.
The areas to which the cattle egret has expanded have no cattle egret parasites.
The first egrets to colonize South America evolved into a new species capable of competing with the native species of herons and egrets.

A habitat left unoccupied by native herons and egrets met the biotic and abiotic requirements of the cattle egret transplants and their descendants.

Air masses formed over the Pacific Ocean are moved by prevailing westerlies where they encounter extensive north-south mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada and the Cascades. Which statement best describes the changes that these air masses undergo?
The warm, moist Pacific air rises and cools, releasing precipitation as it moves up the windward side of the range, and this cool, now dry air mass heats up as it descends on the leeward side of the range.
These air masses are blocked by these mountain ranges producing high annual amounts of precipitation on the windward sides of these mountain ranges.
The cool, moist Pacific air heats up as it rises, releasing its precipitation as it passes the tops of the mountains, and this warm, now dry air cools as it descends on the leeward side of the range.
These air masses remain essentially unchanged in moisture content and temperature as they pass over these mountain ranges.
The cool, dry Pacific air heats and picks up moisture from evaporation of the snowcapped peaks of the mountain range, releasing this moisture as precipitation as the air cools as it descends on the leeward side of the range.

The warm, moist Pacific air rises and cools, releasing precipitation as it moves up the windward side of the range, and this cool, now dry air mass heats up as it descends on the leeward side of the range.

The benthic zone in an aquatic biome??

is where one would most expect to find a thermocline.

supports communities of highly motile animals.

often supports communities of organisms that feed largely on detritus.

has wider seasonal fluctuations in temperature than other aquatic zones.
is always devoid of light.

often supports communities of organisms that feed largely on detritus.

Where would an ecologist find the most phytoplankton in a lake?
aphotic zone
photic zone
oligotrophic zone
benthic zone
profundal zone

photic zone

In which of the following terrestrial biome pairs are both dependent upon periodic burning?
tundra and coniferous forest
chaparral and savanna
tropical forest and temperate broadleaf forest
grassland and tundra
desert and savanna

chaparral and savanna

Which type of biome would most likely occur in a climate with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers?
taiga
chaparral
temperate grassland
savanna
desert

chaparral

The most inclusive level of organization in nature is the _____. (Concept 52.1)
community
biosphere
cell
ecosystem
population

biosphere

Researchers studied the change in allele frequencies in a population of finches in the Galapagos Islands during and after a major drought. The drought was a(n) ______ effect. The reduction in the frequency of alleles for small beaks was a(n) ___________ effect. (Concept 52.1)
Biotic; abiotic
Evolutionary; ecological
Ecological; evolutionary
Ecological; abiotic
Organismal; ecological

Ecological; evolutionary

Which of the following investigations is an example of the study of an abiotic factor? (Concept 52.2)
investigating how an elk population competes for food
investigating how the amount of annual precipitation affects a tree species
observing interactions among various organisms in a rainforest canopy.
identifying food sources for an egret population
All of the above are examples of possible abiotic factor investigations.

investigating how the amount of annual precipitation affects a tree species

Why are experiments that involve transplanting species seldom conducted today? (Concept 52.2)
Species transplants still are a popular experimental tool.
The transplanted species are often disruptive to their new communities.
There are no criteria to determine if they are successful.
The success of the transplant cannot be measured in one researcher's lifetime.
The potential range of a transplanted species can never be greater than its actual range

The transplanted species are often disruptive to their new communities.

In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms are _____. (Concept 52.2)
temperature and sunlight
competitors and predators
predators and parasites
water and temperature
wind and water

water and temperature

A biome is a(n) _____. (Concept 52.3)
major type of biosphere
set of similar communities
area with a uniform distribution of organisms and abiotic environmental conditions
specific set of abiotic factors
major type of ecosystem

major type of ecosystem

What are the most abundant animals found in the pelagic zone? (Concept 52.3)
dinoflagellates
zooplankton
cnidarians
marine mammals
echinoderms

zooplankton

In lakes and ponds, nutrient enrichment occurs when _____; it can lead to _____. (Concept 52.3)
primary producers are killed by pollution ... starvation of organisms at higher trophic levels
toxic substances accumulate in lake sediments ... biohazards in the food web
nutrients from human-altered terrestrial ecosystems are deposited in the water body ... anaerobic conditions in deeper waters
levels of dissolved CO2 rise ... bicarbonate levels that are too high to support life
pesticides are washed off agricultural land ... decreased aquatic biodiversity

nutrients from human-altered terrestrial ecosystems are deposited in the water body ... anaerobic conditions in deeper waters

Fire helps to maintain the existence of which biomes? (Concept 52.4)

savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest.

savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grassland, and temperate broadleaf forest.

savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, tundra, and coniferous forest.

tropical forest, savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest.
savanna and chaparral.

savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, and coniferous forest

In which biome would you most likely find plants that exhibit C4 or CAM photosynthesis? (Concept 52.4)
coniferous forest
desert
tundra
tropical forest
temperate grassland

desert

Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual's life span?
robins
humans
oysters
grasses
elephants

robins

Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.
prereproductive oysters
larval and juvenile oysters
adults
larvae
juveniles

adults

Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?
robins
cats
humans
grasses
elephants

grasses

Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?
oysters
robins
grasses
elephants
cats

elephants

Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?
the discovery of antibiotics
the Industrial Revolution
the bubonic plague
the discovery of vaccines
the advent of agriculture

the advent of agriculture

Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?
the discovery of antibiotics
the Industrial Revolution
the discovery of vaccines
the bubonic plague
the advent of agriculture

the Industrial Revolution

Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?
the discovery of vaccines
the Industrial Revolution
the advent of agriculture
the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics
the discovery of antibiotics

the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics

The most plausible hypothesis to explain why species richness is higher in tropical than in temperate regions is that
tropical regions generally have more?

available water and higher levels of solar radiation.

tropical regions have very high rates of immigration and very low rates of extinction.

biodiversity increases as evapotranspiration decreases.

higher temperatures cause more rapid speciation.

tropical communities are younger.

available water and higher levels of solar radiation.

Based on the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, a community's species diversity is ?

increased when humans intervene to eliminate disturbance.

increased by moderate levels of disturbance.

increased by stable conditions with no disturbance.

increased by frequent massive disturbance.

increased by intensive disturbance by humans.

increased by moderate levels of disturbance.

What is the most important role of photosynthetic organisms in an ecosystem?

absorbing solar radiation
recycling energy from other tropic levels

producing organic detritus for decomposers

converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds

dissipating heat

converting inorganic compounds into organic compounds

Which of the following is an example of an ecosystem?

The plants, animals, and decomposers that inhabit an alpine meadow.

Interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropical rain forest.

All of the brook trout in a 500 hectare2 river drainage system.

A pond and all of the plant and animal species that live in it.

The intricate interactions of the various plant and animal species on a savanna during a drought.

Interactions between all of the organisms and their physical environment in a tropical rain forest.

How does inefficient transfer of energy among trophic levels result in the typically high endangerment status of many top predators?

Predators are more disease-prone than animals at lower trophic levels.

Predators have short life spans and short reproductive periods.

Predators have relatively large population sizes.

Top-level predators are destined to have small populations that are sparsely distributed.

Top-level predators are destined to have small populations that are sparsely distributed, predators have relatively large population sizes, predators are more disease-prone than animals at lower trophic levels, and predators have short life spans and short reproductive periods.

Top-level predators are destined to have small populations that are sparsely distributed

Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth's carrying capacity for humans?
above the carrying capacity
below the carrying capacity
There is insufficient information to answer this question.
either at or above the carrying capacity
at the carrying capacity

There is insufficient information to answer this question.

If the flow of energy in an arctic ecosystem goes through a simple food chain, perhaps involving humans, starts from seaweeds to fish to seals to polar bears, then which of the following could be true?

The total biomass of the seaweeds is lower than that of the seals.

Polar bears can provide more food for humans than seals can.

Seal populations are larger than fish populations.

Seal meat probably contains the highest concentrations of fat-soluble toxins.

The seaweed can potentially provide more food for humans than the seal meat can.

Some global warming models predict that, if permafrost in the tundra regions in the northern hemisphere melts, atmospheric CO2 levels will increase. Which of the following statements best explains this prediction?

All of the permafrost ice would become runoff, and this volume of water will cause sea levels to rise globally, flooding some of the most important.

photosynthetic CO2 sink regions on the planet.

All of the undecayed organic material would be subject to decomposition following a thaw, which would lead to incredible increase in global cellular respiration, and add to atmospheric CO2.

CO2 tied up in the permafrost ice will be released during a thaw.
The heat released by the melting of the ice on such a vast scale will cause atmospheric CO2 saturation levels to increase.

All of the tundra producers will die if the permafrost melts, and because the tundra regions are vast in the northern hemisphere the tundra plants will not take part in photosynthetic removal of atmospheric CO2.

All of the undecayed organic material would be subject to decomposition following a thaw, which would lead to incredible increase in global cellular respiration, and add to atmospheric CO2.

The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey is an example of ?
biological magnification.
eutrophication.
the green world hypothesis.
predation.
chemical cycling through an ecosystem.

biological magnification.

Which curve best describes survivorship in elephants?


A
B
C
D
E

A

Which of the following describes carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor re-reflecting infrared radiation back toward Earth?
greenhouse effect
biological magnification
eutrophication
depletion of atmospheric ozone
turnover

GREENHOUSE EFFECT

As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation?
The population will show an Allee effect.
The carrying capacity of the environment will increase.
The growth rate will not change.
The population will increase exponentially.
The growth rate will approach zero

The growth rate will approach zero

A human eats a deer. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the deer?
mutualism
parasitism
predation
commensalism
competition

PREDATION

Humans and sharks both eat fish. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the shark?
predation
mutualism
commensalism
parasitism
competition

COMPETITION

Humans who have pets tend to be healthier than humans who do not have pets. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a human and a pet?
mutualism
predation
parasitism
competition
commensalism

MUTUALISM

An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
primary consumer
secondary consumer
detritivore
producer
tertiary consumer

DETRITIVORE

Which of the following examples best describes an ecological community?

The material cycling and energy transformations between the biotic and abiotic components of an open meadow.

The various species of barnacles competing for resources in an intertidal zone.

The intraspecific competition of members of a brook trout population inhabiting a stream during a given year.

The interactions of the various plant and animal species of park, excepting the decomposers.

The interactions of all the plant and animal species inhabiting a 2 hectare forest.

The interactions of all the plant and animal species inhabiting a 2 hectare forest.

The species richness of a community refers to the?

total number of all organisms.

number of different species.

complexity of the food web.

relative numbers of individuals in each species.

the bottom-heavy shape of the energy pyramid.

number of different species.

Approximately how many kg of carnivore production can be supported by a field plot containing 2000 kg of plant material?
2
200
20
20,000
2,000

20

Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a dog and a blood-sucking tick?
competition
commensalism
mutualism
parasitism
predation

PARASITISM

In a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to eight after one species was removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
resource partitioner.
mutualistic organism.
community facilitator.
keystone species.
herbivore.

KEYSTONE SPECIES

Species richness increases?

on islands as distance from the mainland increases.

as community size decreases.

as we travel north from the South Pole.

as depth increases in aquatic communities.

as we increase in altitude in equatorial mountains.

as we travel north from the South Pole.

Keystone predators can maintain species diversity in a community if they?

competitively exclude other predators.

prey on the community's dominant species.

reduce the number of disruptions in the community.

allow immigration of other predators.

prey only on the least abundant species in the community.

prey on the community's dominant species.

Elephants are not the most common species in African grasslands. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Which of the following describes why elephants are the keystone species in this scenario?

Essentially all of the other species depend on the presence of the elephants to maintain the community.

Elephants prevent drought in African grasslands.

Elephants are the biggest herbivore in this community.

Grazing animals depend upon the elephants to convert forests to grassland.

Elephants help other populations survive by keeping out many of the large African predators.

Correct

Essentially all of the other species depend on the presence of the elephants to maintain the community.

An egret eats insects stirred up by grazing animals. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the egret and the grazing animal?
commensalism
competition
predation
mutualism
parasitism

COMMENSALISM

A movement corridor ?

is always some natural component of the environment.

is the path most commonly used by an animal within its home range.

is a path used by migratory animals when they move to their wintering locales.

is always beneficial to a species.

unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat.

unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat.

Which of the following is true about "hot spots"?
1/3 of all species on Earth occupy less that 1.5% of the earth's land area.

75% of all of the undiscovered species of organisms live in ecological hot spots.

As conservation measures improve over the next ten years hot spots will likely disappear.

All of the plants and animals containing genes that may be useful to humankind are located in the Earth's hot spots.

The hot spots that are in most dire need of remediation are located in the tundra.

1/3 of all species on Earth occupy less that 1.5% of the earth's land area.

The greatest cause of the biodiversity crisis that includes all of the others is
pollution.
global warming.
habitat destruction.
overpopulation of humans.
introduced species

OVERPOPULATION OF HUMANS

In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
primary consumers
secondary consumers
detritivores
tertiary consumers
producers

PRODUCERS

How is habitat fragmentation related to biodiversity loss?

Animals are forced out of smaller habitat fragments.

Populations of organisms in fragments are smaller and, thus, more susceptible to extinction.

Fragments generate silt that negatively affect sensitive river and stream organisms.

Less carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants in fragmented habitats.
In fragmented habitats, more soil erosion takes place.

Populations of organisms in fragments are smaller and, thus, more susceptible to extinction.

Which of the following is the most direct threat to biodiversity?
overexploitation of species
zoned reserves
habitat destruction
increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide
the depletion of the ozone layer

habitat destruction

What term did E. O. Wilson coin for our innate appreciation of wild environments and living organisms?
bioremediation
bioethics
biophilia
landscape ecology
biophobia

BIOPHILIA

What is the term for a top predator that contributes to the maintenance of species diversity among its animal prey?
landscape species
primary consumer
tertiary consumer
keystone mutualist
keystone species

keystone species

Estimates of current rates of extinction
indicate that only 1% of all of the species that have ever lived on Earth are still alive.

indicate that we have reached a state of stable equilibrium in which speciation and extinction rates are approximately equal.

indicate that rates may be greater than the mass extinctions at the close of the Cretaceous period.

suggest that one-half of all animal and plant species may be gone by the year 2100.

suggest that rates of extinction have decreased globally.

indicate that rates may be greater than the mass extinctions at the close of the Cretaceous period.

What is the estimated number of extant species on Earth?
500,000 to 1,000,000
1,000 to 50,000
50,000 to 150,000
10,000,000 to 200,000,000
5 billion-10 billion

10,000,000 to 200,000,000

The introduction of the brown tree snake in the 1940s to the island of Guam has resulted in?
new species of hybrids from breeding with native snake species.

eradication of nonnative rats and other undesirable/pest species.

failure to compete with native species and its quick elimination from the island.

the extirpation of many of the island's bird and reptile species.

a good lesson in biological control.

the extirpation of many of the island's bird and reptile species.

The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to more natural states is known as
population viability analysis.
landscape ecology.
restoration ecology.
conservation ecology.
resource conservation

restoration ecology.

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