Biological Aging: DNA-Cellular Level
telomere shortagening. These are located at the end of chromosomes, act as protector of the chromosomes from destrution, eventually shorten so much chromosome can no longer duplicate
Biological Aging: Organ and Tissue level
cross linkage theory
Declines in immune system functioning
Cross Linkage theory
protein fibers link, making tissue become less elastic, and could result in loss of skin and organ flexibility, clouding of lens in eye, clogged arteries and damange of kidneys
Physical Aging: Obesity
caused by heredity, environmental pressures such as cheap fats and sugars, supersized portions, and busy lives, and declining physical activity
Consequences: strongly associated with serious health problems such as diabetes 2, heart disease, cancer, and early death. Social discrimination: less likely to find mate like likely to be rented apartments, receive financial aid, be offered jobs, and more likely to be mistreated
only 1/3 gets enough at least 20 min of moderate exercise 5 times a week
more ofter and vigorous is better
about 40% of Americans are inactive (women, low SES)
Piaget's Changing in Thinking Theory
Postformal thought- uncertainty and conflicts
Perry's Changing in Thinking Theory
Epistemic Cognition-relativistic thinking, synthesizes contradictions, challenges opportunities to reflect and peers all contribute to development
Labouvie-Vief's Changing in Thinking Theory
Pragmatic Thought-logic as a tool, cognitive-affirmative complexity grows, adulthood brings the chance to solve real-world problems.
Factors Influencing Vocational Choice
personality, family influences, teachers, gender stereotypes, access to vocational information
Vocational Development: Fantasy Period
early and middle childhood, children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them, bear little relation
focus on a general vocational category and experiment before sitting on a single occupation
Investigative-enjoys working with idea, science occupation
Social-like interacting with people, human service occupation
Realistic-prefer real-world problems and working with objects, mechanical occupation
Artistic-emotional and high in need for individual expression, looks toward artistic field
Conventional-likes well structured tasks and values material possessions and social status, business field
Enterprising-adventurous, persuasive, and a strong leader, drawn to sales and supervisory positions.
the transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that is has spawned a new transitional period, extending for the late teens to the mid twenties.
conflict of early adulthood is intimacy vs. isolation, reflected in the young person's thought and feelings about making permanent commitment to an intimate partner. Emphasized a secure identity fosters attainment of intimacy, w/o intimacy young adults face the negative outcomes of Erikson's early adulthood stages
Levinson's Seasons of Life
interviews to see that the way men and women approach developmental tasks in somewhat different ways.
underlying design of a person's life, consisting of relationships with significant others, individuals, groups and institutions.
construct a dream, make serious decisions about work, marriage, children, and lifestyle.
Mens dreams are more individualistic while woman's are more split dreams with marriage and career
Vaillant's Adaption to Life
interviews men about work, family, physical, and mental health. quality of relationships with important people shape the life courses
Mate selection-gender differences
women assign more weight on intelligence, ambition, financial status and moral characteristics prefer same age or slightly older. want to take things slower and achieve intimacy first. Men physical attractiveness, and domestic skills who is younger, sexual pleasure, want relationship to move quickly towards phhsical intimacy.
Influence of childhood attachment styles on adult relationships
women-earning power, emotional commitment, help ensue a child's survival and well being, acquire nature behaviors, facilitating care giving.
Men-signs of youthfulness, health, ability to give birth and care for offspring, learn to be assertive and independent behaviors that are needed to be successful in the work world.
3 Components of Sternberg's Triangular theory of Love
Intimacy-emotional component, communication, expressions, concern for others well being
Passion-sexual activity and romance, physical desire, and psychological arousal component.
Commitment- Cognitive components, leading partners to decided that they are in love and maintain it.
Age differences in components of love
warm, trusting affections and caregiving
who becomes friends
people with common interests, experiences and needs. enhances self esteem through affirmative and acceptance and provide support, make life interesting by expanding social opportunities and access to knowledge and points of view.
gender differences in friendship
women-see friends more often which contributes to a greater friendship, more intimate, evaluate friendships more positively
men-competitiveness, unwilling to disclose weakness and concern that if they tell about themselves, their friends will not reciprocate.
Traditional vs Egalitarian
traditional-involving clear division of husband and wife roles
egalitarian-partners relate as equals, sharing power and authority, balance time and energy to occupations and children and relationship.
Factors related to marital satisfaction
reasons for coupled to have children, advantages; growth and learning experiences that children bring to lives of adults, feelings of accomplishment and creativity come from helping children grow
Sexuality in Middle-aged Adults
frequency goes down
more sex=happier marriage
intensity of sex response declines in midlife due to physical changes of climacteric.
Hearing changes with age
Presbycusis(old hearing), first loss in high pitch frequencies, due to inner-ear structures that transform mechanical sound waves into impulses deteriorate through cell death or reduced blood supply. Mens' hearing declines earlier and more rapidly than womens.
How to help elders deal with Hostility and Anger
Stress management (1)problem-centered coping-appraising the situation as changeable, identified the difficulty and decided what to do about it. (2) emotional-centered coping-internal,private and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about the situation.
the skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social conventions. Abilities acquired because they are valued by the individual's culture (spatial orientation, numeric ability, and perceptual speed)
depends more heavily on basic information-processing skills-ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed analyzing to detect relation and capacity of working memory (verbal ability, inductive reasoning, and verbal memory.
perpetual speed decreased from the 20's to the late 80's. Cognitive processing slows as people get older. Fluid factors, show greater decrements than crystallized factors
Age related Cognitive Slowing
neuron network view-as neurons in the brain die, breaks in the neural network occur, the brain adapts by forming bypasses-new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient.
Information loss view
older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the cognitive system. As a result, the whole system must slow down to inspect and interpret the information
Double Standard of Aging
women are expected to be smooth skinned and beautiful and in media they are view like this. Men in media are shown as older bc age brings wisdom which is okay.
Erikson's Generativity vs. Stagnation
generativity involves reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation. Stagnation occurs once people attain certain life goals, such as marriage, children, and career success; they may become self-centered and self-indulgent. This ma be expressed through a lack of interest in young people
Levinson's Four Tasks of Middle Adulthood
Parental imperative theory-holds that identification with traditional gender roles in maintained during the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children. Men become more goal-oriented, while women emphasize nurturance. After children reach adulthood, parents are free to express the other-gender side of their personalities
Five Big Personality Traits
neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
Marriage and Divorce
feminization of poverty-a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult population living in poverty, regardless of age and ethnic groud.
Changing parent-child relationships
when warm, supportive relationships endure, intimacy between parents and children increases over the adult years, with great benefits for parents' life satisfaction
Valued elder-being perceived as a wise,helpful person. Immortality through descendants-leaving behind not just one but two generations after death. Re involvement with personal past-being able to pass family history and values to a new generation. Indulgence-having fun with children without major child rearing responsibilities. The role is more central for families with low SES
How to reduce care-giving stress
-use effective coping strategies
-seek social support
-make use of community resources
-press for workplace and public policies that relieve the emotional and financial burdens of caring for an aging parent.
widely used to refer to the idea that middle-aged adults must care for multiple generations above and below them at the same time.
Life Span (general demographics)
Women can look forward to 4 to 7 more years of life than men, because men are at higher risk for disease and early death. Life expectancy varies with SES, ethnicity, and nationality. White children are expected to live 5 to 7 years longer than African Americas and 4 to 5 years longer than Native Americans. Average life expectancy in US is 75 for men and 81 for women.
actual competence and performance of an older adult, as distinguished from chroniological age.
Life Expectancy crossover
at about age 85, surviving members of low-SES ethnic minority groups living longer than members of the white majority
Measures of older adults' quality of life
Activities of Daily Living-basic self-care tasks, required to live on one's own, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed, or eating
Factors predicting long life
Heredity, environmental factors, healthy diet, normal body weight, regular exercise, little or no tobacco use, alcohol, and drug use, and an optimistic outlook, low stress, and social support
gentically influenced age-related declines in the functioning of organs and systems that affect all members of our species and occur even in the context of over all good health. Also known as biological aging
declines due to heredity defects and environmental influences, such as poor diet, lack of exercise, disease, substance abuse, environmental pollution and stress.
Brain weight declines throughout adulthood but becomes greater in the 60's and may reduce by 5-10% by the 80's. Frontal lobe (responses) and corpus callosum (connects hemisphere together) decline the fastest. The cerebellum (balance) also looses neurons. Elders can do cognitive tasks to help the brain create new neurons and slow down the shrinkage of the brain
the most common form of dementia, in which structural and chemical brain deterioration, is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior. Symptoms are usually serve memory problems such as forgetting names to uncertainties. Depression occurs in the first stages. Brain loses it's ability to process information. In final stages, elder becomes more susceptible to infections. doctors use brain scans to diagnose this. Familia means it runs in the family or sporadic means not in the family. abnormal gene ApoE4 thought to be the cause. Low fat or Mediterranean diet is thought to lower the risks of this.
selective optimization with compensation
narrowing their goals, the select personally valued activities to optimize returns from their diminishing energy
memory and aging
difficulties with recall occur in older age. They sometimes cannot tell the difference between imagination. They also have difficulty remembering the source of information
memory without conscious awareness
difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information
very long-term recall
remembering to engage in planned actions in the future
Erikson: Ego vs. Despair
involves coming to terms with one's life. Adults who arrive at a sense of integrity feel whole, complete, and satisfied with their achievements. Adapt to triumph and disappointments.
for those who invested heavily in their careers, finding other ways to affirm self-worth through family, friendship, and community life
surmounting physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive emotional and social powers.
as contemporaries die, facing the reality of death constructively though efforts to make life more secure, meaningful and gratifying for younger generations
Reminiscence and Life Review
older people who are counselor led in life review report increased self-esteem, greater sense of purpose in life, and reduced depression.
Spirituality in Old Age
-older adults attach great value to religious beliefs and behaviors
-generally become more religious with time
-religious involvement is associated with benefits such as physical and psychological well being, more devotes to exercise and leisure activities, greater sense of closeness to friends and family. Predicted longer survival
mutual withdraw between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death. Older people decrease their activity and focus on inner lives.
social barriers to engagement, not the desires of elders, cause declining rates of interaction. When people lose certain roles, they try to find other in an effort to stay about as active and busy as they were in middle ages.
rather than maintaining a certain activity level, most aging people consistency between their past and anticipated future.
social interaction extends lifelong selection processes. Marital relationships deepen, siblings feel closer, and number of friendships decline.
Marriage in late adulthood
satisfaction increases from middle adulthood because of fewer stressful responsibilities in later age, perceptions of fairness is the relationship increases as men participate in household chores. They have extra time together. there is greater emotional attachment.
Factors of retirement
pro: affordability, benefits, low work commitment, declining health, spouse retiring, routine boring jobs
continue working: no retirement benefits, few leisure interests, high work commitment, good health, spouse still working, flexible work. pleasant work, environment.
A full understanding of the biologically based permanence of one's gender, including the realization that sex remains the same even in clothing hairstyle and play activities change.
The middle aged person must forge a better balance between engagement with the external world and separateness. for many men and for many women who have have successful careers, this mat mean reducing concern with ambition and achievement and attending more fully to the self.
the middle-aged person must create a better balance between masculine and feminine parts of the self. For men this means accepting feminine traits of nurture and caring. For women it means being more masculine
with greater awareness of mortality, the middle-aged person focuses on ways he or she has acted destructively and how others have done the same.
the middle age person must seek new ways of being both young and old. This means giving up youthful qualities and finding positive meaning of being older.
Pecks Three Tasks of Ego
between ages 11 - 16, adolescents think about careers in more complex ways, first in terms of their interests, then as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations, in terms of ability and value
late teens and early twenties, start to narrow options, exploration-gathering information about possibilities that blend with their personal characteristics,