Software that helps the user organize and analyze data.
A program that allows the user to organize and analyze data using a grid of cells.
An element of a spreadsheet that can contain data or a formula.
A computation provided by the spreadsheet software that can be incorporated into formulas.
A set of contiguous cells specified by the endpoints.
A set of formulas that ultimately, and erroneously, reply on each other to compute their results.
Modifying spreadsheet values that represent assumptions to see how changes in those assumptions affect related data.
A structured set of data.
Database Management System
A combination of software and data made up of the physical database, the database engine, and the database schema.
A request to retrieve data from a database.
A specification of the logical structure of data in a database.
A database model in which data and the relationships among them are organized into tables.
A collection of database records.
Record (or object, or entity)
A collection of related fields that make up a single database entry.
Field (or attribute)
A single value in a database record.
One or more fields of a database record that uniquely identifies it among all other records in the table.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A comprehensive relational database language for data management and queries.
Entity-relationship (ER) Modeling
A popular technique for designing relational databases.
A graphical representation of an ER model.
The number of relationships that may exist at one time among entities in an ER diagram.
The process of buying and selling products and services using the World Wide Web.
The techniques and policies used to ensure proper access to data.
Ensuring that data is protected from unauthorized access.
Ensuring that data can be modified only by appropriate mechanisms.
The degree to which authorized users can access information for legitimate purposes.
Determining the nature and likelihood of the risks to key data.
The field of study related to encoded information.
The process of converting plaintext into ciphertext.
The process of converting ciphertext into plaintext.
An algorithm used to encrypt and decrypt text.
The set of parameters that guide a cipher.
A cipher that substitutes one character with another.
A substitution cipher that shifts characters a certain number of positions in the alphabet.
A cipher that rearranges the order of characters in a message.
A transposition cipher that lays out a message in a grid and traverses it in a particular way.
The process of decrypting a message without knowing the cipher or key used to encrypt it.
An approach to cryptography in which each user has two related keys, one public and one private.
Data that is appended to a message, made from the message itself and the sender's private key, to ensure the authenticity of the message.
A representation of a sender's authenticated public key used to minimize malicious forgeries.
Information users provide to identify themselves for computer access.
A card with an embedded memory chip used to identify users and control access.
Using human characteristics such as fingerprints, retina patters, or voice patterns to identify users and control access.
A computer program that attempts to bypass appropriate authorization and/or perform unauthorized functions.
A malicious, self-replicating program that embeds itself into other code.
A malicious standalone program that often targets network resources.
A malicious program disguised as a benevolent resource.
A malicious program that is set up to execute when a specific system event occurs.
An attempt to gain access to a computer system by methodically trying to determine a user's password.
Using a Web page to masquerade as part of an authoritative system and trick users into revealing security information.
An attack on a computer system in which a malicious user masquerades as an authorized user.
A program feature that gives special and unauthorized access to a computer system to anyone who knows it exists.
A defect in a computer program that could cause a system to crash and leave the user with heightened privileges.
Denial of Service
An attack on a network resource that prevents authorized users from accessing the system.
A security attack in which network communication is intercepted in an attempt to obtain key data.