Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System

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Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System Student Post-Test Questions

The heart has its own special covering, a lining of two layers of fibrous tissue called the

pericardium.

The wall of each chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue usually referred to as the

myocardium.

The outer layer of the pericardium is called the

parietal pericardium.

Structures that separate the chambers and permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called

valves.

The aorta carries blood out of which chamber?

left ventricle

Which blood vessels return venous blood to the right atrium?

superior and inferior venae cavae

The four structures that compose the conduction system of the heart are the

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers.

What is the term used to describe the severe chest pain that occurs when the myocardium is deprived of oxygen?

angina

Microscopic vessels that carry blood from small arteries to small veins are

capillaries

The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the

tunica adventitia.

Semilunar valves can be found in which blood vessel?

vein

Blood flow from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body and back to the heart is called

systemic circulation.

During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein?

It flows into the inferior vena cava.

The normal cardiac impulse that initiates mechanical contraction of the heart arises in the

SA node.

A graphic record of the heart's electrical activity is a(n)

ECG.

The normal ECG is composed of the following except

E wave.

A type of abnormal heart sound that may signify incomplete closing of the valves is

a heart murmur.

Cardiac output is determined by

stroke volume and heart rate.

Blood pressure is measured with the aid of an apparatus known as a(n)

sphygmomanometer.

The condition in which the number of red blood cells increases beyond normal and thus increases blood viscosity is called

polycythemia.

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