An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
Information gathered from observations. Also called evidence.
Data that cannot me easily measured. Examples include color or texture.
Data that can me measured and expressed as numbers.
Logical interpretation based on prior knowledge.
Possible explanation for a set of observations. Must be testable.
the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated (changed) at a time
the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable
the variable that is deliberately changed. The varialbe that is being tested.
used swan neck flask to finally prove that living things do NOT come from nonliving things
a well tested explanation that unifies many observations.
the part of earth where life exists
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
a group of organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
An individual living thing
negatively charged particle outside of nucleus
positively charged particle inside of nucleus
neutral particle located inside of nucleus
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
substance formed by two or more elements
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
smallest unit of most compounds
Unequal distribution of charges in water causing one end to be positive and the other negative
attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
single sugar molecule (monomer)
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Carries genetic information.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
basic building blocks of protein molecules
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing. Lowers the activiation energy.
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
energy needed to get a reaction started
enzyme substrate complex
Formed when the substrate binds to an enzyme.
the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
Enzyme responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
enzyme that breaks down starch
enzyme that breaks down lipids
the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces
the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, fungi, and some bacteria
material inside the cell membrane—not including the nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell
a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material
organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cellular framework found within the cytoplasm composed of microtubules and microfilaments
small round structures that make proteins
an internal membrane system in which proteins are constructed
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste
The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
a solution that has a higher concentration of solute outside than inside a cell, causing water to leave the cell by osmosis
a solution that has a lower concentration of solute outside than inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy: low to high
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell; high to low
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
layer of cells under the upper epidermis of a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
cells that control the opening and closing of stomata based on water pressure
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen (produces 36 ATP)
lactic acid fermentation
is one of the processes that supplies energy when no oxygen is availabe. Causes muscle soreness.
an organism that makes its own food
an organism that cannot make its own food
Forms a waterproof layer to stop water loss in leaves
loosely packed mesophyll layer with air spaces; cells have many chloroplasts